Unit Two Individual differences (abnormality)

General overiew of everything you need to know for unit two individual differences

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Individual Differences
    • Treating Abnormality
      • Biological Therapies
        • Drugs
          • Modifies working brain and changes mood and behaviour: Antiphyscotics, Tricyclics - treat depression, antidepressent drugs
            • tackles symptoms not problems
            • placebos act just as good as drugs symptoms may be psychological
            • requires little effort from user
            • A lot  of evidence
            • side effects
        • ECT
          • small electric current passed over brain causing seizure
            • ECT can save lives
            • Effectiveness
            • Sham  ECT - placebo effect
            • side effects
      • Psychological Therapies
        • Psychoanalysis
          • Free association, dream analysis and projective tests looking at how conflict in the sub conscious  is emerging in consciousness to identify the conflict and resolve it.
            • Ethical issues
            • not suitable for all disorders
            • depend on client developing insight their condition not suitable for unwilling clients
            • can be long lasting and expensive
            • accepts the complexity of the human mind
        • Systematic de-sensitisation
          • Enables people to relax in presence of a stimuli stage by stage untill they overcome their phobia
            • Appropiateness
            • Effectiveness
            • problem of symptom substitution
            • reduced effctiveness for some phobias
        • Cognitive behavioural therapies
          • therapist and client work together to identify situations and the negative reactions they produce. gives realistic perspective challenges irrational beliefs
    • Definitions and Explanations of psychological Abnormality
      • Deviations from social norms
        • The rules for how people should act in a given society. any behavior that is outside these norms is considered abnormal
          • Susceptible to abuse
          • Deviance is related to context and degree
          • Cultural Relativism
      • Failure to function adequately
        • where a person is seen to not be able to cope with the demands of everyday life.
          • Who judges?
          • Adaptive or Maladaptive?
          • Cultural Relativism
      • Deviation from ideal mental health
        • Focus es on the 'Normal' characteristics people should possess. Deviation is moving away from these norms
          • Over demanding criteria
          • Can we judge mental health the same as physical health?
          • Cultural Relativism
      • The Biological Approach
        • All behaviour is associated with changes in brain function: Physical Factors, Genetic Inheritance, Genes, Viral infection
          • Lead to more humane treatments of people with mental disorders
          • use of Brain scanning evidence is supportive
          • Research in Genetics has shown an ingherited component that makes people more suceptible to problems
          • drug treatments are effective
          • Cause and effect - link can not be determined
          • inconclusive Evidencee
          • Reductionist
      • Behavioral Approach
        • Abnormality is seen as the development of behaviour patterns developed through conditioning or social learning
          • treatments can be effective in treating phobias
          • Counter  Evidence
          • Treats symptoms and not cause
          • Reductionist
          • Deterministic
      • Cognitive Approach
        • Abnormality is caused by faulty thinking - devised ABC model
          • Clear Evidence
          • Therapy is effective
          • Blames patient rather than situation
          • Consequence rather than cause
          • irrational beliefs may be  realistic
          • Does  not account for biological or genetic factors
      • Psychodynamic Approach
        • Assume s adult behaviour reflects complex dynamic interactions between conscious and unconscious processes
          • Freud was first to suggest how our adult behaviour could be influenced by childhood experiences
          • Freud was first to suggest importance of repressed material on behaviour
          • over emphasis on sexuality
          • use of case studies
          • impossible to test
          • Historical and cultural bias
  • Modifies working brain and changes mood and behaviour: Antiphyscotics, Tricyclics - treat depression, antidepressent drugs
    • tackles symptoms not problems
    • placebos act just as good as drugs symptoms may be psychological
    • requires little effort from user
    • A lot  of evidence
    • side effects
  • Enables people to relax in presence of a stimuli stage by stage untill they overcome their phobia
    • Appropiateness
    • Effectiveness
    • problem of symptom substitution
    • reduced effctiveness for some phobias

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Abnormality resources »