All notes on AS Psych: Stress, Individual differences, Social influence

Notes on Stress, Social influence and Individual differences.. literally when I wrote all my notes out last year from all the resources and lessons given on the topics. 
Hope it's helpful(:  

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  • Created by: Sonia
  • Created on: 14-04-12 21:21

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AS Psychology Unit 2 Notes
What is stress?
1. Stimulus definition: External stimulus or situation which places strain on an
individual is stress.
2. Response definition: Unpleasant stimulus or situation where the stressor
produces a negative physiological and psychological change
3. Transactional definition: Result of an individuals perception of…

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Immune system is temporarily suppressed: in body's main defense against
illness made up of white blood cells (phagocytes and lymphocytes that
protect you against antigens) Less of these means antigens have more of a

Studies Physical illness and stress

*Cohen et al:
> 394 participants given questionnaire on stress…

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- ... generalized?
- ... genetically different to humans?
- ... ethical?
Holmes & Rahe = Social Re-adjustment Rating Scale [SRRS]

Measure of stress, Homes and Rahe examined records of 500 patients ­ made
a list of 43 life events varying in seriousness, which seemed to cluster in

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Daily Hassles

>Hassles and uplifts scale -> Lazarus et al
* assess the real sources of stress, originally had 117 items and can be
constructed into subgroups (e.g. students)
* also thought positive events in life could reduce the impact of hassles:
introduced uplifts

Research Findings:
>Kanner et al: scores…

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Work related stress

*Furedi: 2/3 workers experience occupational stress and stress has ver taken the
common cold as the main source of absence from work
*Employers take work related stress seriously as it could cause absences, poor
performance and efficiency and high turnover of staff

Work Overload
Quantitative = a…

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Lack of Control:
Ability to have an influence on their work and environment is defined by control
Logan and Ganster: tested increased control with reducing stress. Found= those with
supportive managers had a high sense of control and high job satisfaction. Eval =
doesn't account for individual differences: high job…

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Individual differences ­ personality

Some people are more likely than others to perceive and experience a situation
as stressful
Personality = characteristic ways of behaving, thinking, feeling and perceiving

Friedman and Roseman identified two personality types: A and B
Type A:
Competitive, impatient, ambitious, impulsive, aggressive, hostile
Type B:

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>found: men with no protective factors= more severe illnesses than others
also the presence of 1,2 or 3 of the factors is associated with decreasing illness
>conclusion: they don't see things as stressful so body's stress response is activate less
- ... white M/C men = generalisable?
- ...…

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*made resistant to stress the same way as a disease- like vaccinating your mind
*changes how you think so when you encounter stress in the future you have the skills
to deal with it effectively
1.) Conceptualisation: therapist gets to grips with the experiences of stress and
understands how they…

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Evaluation of EF:
+ ... quick, easy techniques
+ ... allows people to carry on with lives even when the stressor is still there
- ... not effective long term solution

Problem focused coping = Approach
*Dealing with the stressor by treating it as a problem to be solved.




Very detailed and easy to understand. Thank you very much!!

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