Independence and adaptation

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  • Independence and Adaptation
    • Competition. Microorgamisms compete to survive and reproduce
      • Animals compete for food, territory and mates
      • Plants compete for light, space, water and nutrients
    • Extremophiles (low competition)
      • Salt (sea/lakes)- Mangroves have special roots that only absorb water not salt.
      • Heat- Camals and Bacteria- must have special enzymes that are tolerant to high temperature( do not denature)
      • Pressure (deep sea)- bacteria, specific fish and sea mammals
    • Cold Environments
      • Thick fur, thick layer of fat (reduce heat loss/ good insulators), camouflage, small surface area
    • Dry Environments (plants)
      • Thick stem to store water,
      • Spikes/leaves have small surface area to reduce water loss
      • Large, extensive roots near surface to absorb max water before evapouration
    • Surface area
      • Cold environment= small surface area eg polar bears have very small ears to reduce heat loss.
      • Hot environments= large surface area eg elephants have very large ears for max heat loss.
      • Dry environments= small surface area to reduce water loss eg cactus have spikes/leaves
    • Changes in the environment affect the distribution of living organisms.
      • Population size and distribution influenced by ...
        • Living: competition, predators and disease.
        • Non-living:: temperature, nutrients, rainfall and pollution.
    • Pollution indicators
      • Lichens (air pollution)
        • Sensitive to sulfur dioxide.
        • No lichen= heavy levels of pollution
      • Invertebrates (water pollution)
        • Indicate concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
    • Measuring environmental change
      • Rainfall measured by a rain gauge
      • Oxygen levels in water can be measured using oxygen probes
      • To measure temp you can use a thermometer or a digital thermometer as it is continuous and doesn't need a person to read it.


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