immunity- the cells

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  • Created by: vezting
  • Created on: 03-04-16 14:39
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  • immunity- the cells
    • Phagocytes
      • neutrophils
        • multilobed nucleus
        • made in the bone marrow
        • travel in blood, then squeez out into tissue fluid
        • neutrophils are short lived and may collect in an area of infection to form puss
      • macrophages
        • larger cells, yet still mad ein bone marrow
        • travel in the b lood as monocytes, settle in organs, mostly lymph node,
        • in lymph node they become macrophages
        • trhey release cytokines that stimulate B cells to differentiate
      • 1: when pathogen invades body, it is recognised as forgein and macrophages initiate the immune response
      • 2:antibodies in the blood stream attach to the foreign antegic (complementary)
      • 3: neutrophils have membrane bound proteins (receptors) that attach to the antibody already attached to antigen
      • 4: neutrophils engluf the pathogen by folding in the membrane, this creates a phagosome vacuole
      • 5: lysosomes fuse with phagosome and inject  lysins (enzymes) which digest the bacterium
      • the end products are harmless nutrients that are absorbed into cytoplasm
      • infected cells release histamine, this makes capillaries more leaky
      • leaky capillaries means more fluid leaves, and enters lympahtic system
      • fluid in the lymphatic system leads pathogens towards lymph nodes
    • lymphocytes and the response


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