How far were divisions... political parties explained

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  • How far were divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of the Tsarist Rule in the years 1881 - 1905? (Jan 2009)
    • groups/parties
      • Social Democrat Party
        • split by Lenin's ideas
          • Happened in 1905 because it couldn't agree on strategy and organisation
          • Bolsheviks
            • wanted to limit their membership to those who were dedicated revolutionaries and wanted a workers' revolution
          • Mensheviks
            • opposed the Bolshevik view and they wanted the party to have a broad, open membership
        • The Creation of the Jewish Bund
          • wanted a socialist Russia where anti-Semitism was abolished
        • had Marxist views
          • but industrial development was essential for Marxist to work
      • Liberalists
        • split
          • ones who wanted a republic
            • Kadets
              • a more radical group
                • They saw the October Manifesto as the beginning of reform
              • believed that a parliamentary system of government was the best way of dealing with social and economic issues
            • Octoberists
              • After the 1905 revolution, the October Manifesto was proposed that suggested the creation of a national parliament
                • They believed that this was the best settlement for constitutional development
              • Supporters of Tsar Nicholas II
          • ones who wanted a constitutional monachy
            • The Union of Liberalism
        • The creation of the Zemstva
          • the first political organisation that had elected officials
      • Social Revolutionaries
        • played an important role in the 1905 revolution because of their support of the peasant uprisings
        • had no coherent long term plan to achieve power and were often poorly organised
        • the use of terrorism was one of their key methods
      • The lack of organisation and the amount of splits in the political parties did not threaten the rule of the Tsar
    • Other Factors
      • The Okhrana
        • under Alexander III they were powerful and feared
        • Nicholas II continued to use the Okhrana to maintain security within Russia
        • they banned foreign books and newspapers to stop foreign political ideas from reaching Russia
          • Because of this, 14 newspapers were banned and press freedoms were restricted
      • the Army
        • Nicholas II used the Army and elite forces, the Cossacks to suppress strikes and protests
          • can be seen in the suppression in the general strikes in Rostov in 1902 and Odessa in 1903
      • no political parties were allowed


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