How do atmospheric systems cause heavy snowfall, intense cold spells, heatwaves and drought and in what ways do they represent a hazard to people? (cont)

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  • Created on: 16-05-14 15:15
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  • How do atmospheric systems cause heavy snowfall, intense cold spells, heatwaves and drought and in what ways do they represent a hazard to people? (cont)
    • Europe 2003 summer heatwave
      • 14802 heat-related deaths in France.  However, effects on crops has caused estimates of up to 70000
      • Hottest summer for 500 years
      • Many countries experienced hottest temps on record
      • 39 Degrees recorder in Kent on 10th August 2003.  This stands as the hottest temp recorded in Britain
      • Caused by a blocking anticyclone
      • 215000 hedtares of forest destroyed in Portugal by fires
      • Extreme snow and ice melt in the Alps led to increased rockfall and mudslides
      • Livestock badly effected across Europe
      • 2 power plants closed down in Germany
      • Transport badly effected- Subways became unusable and some train tracks even buckled
    • Boscastle floods 2004
      • Monday 16th August 2004
      • Causes
        • Caused by a blocking anticyclone that was particularly warm.  This was sat over the particularly warm Atlantic Ocean.  The high pressure picked up high amounts of moisture
        • Orographic uplift as the high pressure hi the coast caused rain
        • 89mm of rain fell just uphill of Boscastle in 60 mins
        • Steep relief and urban environments caused high surface runoff levels
      • 2m rise in river levels in 1 hour
      • 3m rushed through Boscastle main street
      • Water speed of 4m/s
      • 20,000,000 cubic metres of water and mud in one day
      • Impacts
        • 75 cars, 6 buildings, and several boats were washed into the sea
        • 100 homes and businesses destroyed
        • 7 Sea Kings rescued 150 people from mid-afternoon until 0230
        • No deaths, only injury was broken hand
      • Long-term responses
        • River widened and deepened
        • Flood defenses increased considerably
        • New bridge constructed over river to increase flow of river


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