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Weather and Climate Revision Answers
What is the definition of `weather'?
The state of the atmosphere on a local scale over a short period of time.

What is the definition of climate?
The average atmospheric conditions over a larger time scale and area. It is often defined as
the average…

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Named due to the increase in temperature resulting from the absorption of UV
radiation of atomic oxygen found at this altitude.

Why does temperature decline with altitude throughout the troposphere?
At lower altitudes there is more air molecules meaning there is more friction between them which
leads to higher…

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Vertical motion not only transfers heat from the areas of positive heat budget by cooling as
the air masses rise, but is linked to the horizontal movements at higher altitudes which help
transfer warm air towards the Poles.

Global wind systems transfer heat and moisture from the sub-tropics towards…

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saltier and denser meaning it sinks through the water column. It sweeps the Antarctic Continent at
around 4km deep and then moves into the major ocean basins. These motions are reciprocated by
less salty and dense surface currents which move north towards the Poles from the Indian and Pacific

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Today we refer to the Hadley cells either side of the equation to describe the intense
insolation which causes warm air to rise by convention.
The low pressure created drags the trade winds in towards the equator where they are
forced to rise.
The zone where they meet is called…

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Polar Continental (easterly) gives very cold temperatures in the Winter <0°C as
originated over the cold land mass of Eastern Europe, but warms slightly over the North Sea
to become unstable in the lower layers although the North Sea is not wide enough for it to
become a warm air…

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Britain affected by frontal rainfall which occurs when warmer air is pushed up over a
wedge of cooler air where two air masses meet in a frontal system.


Most common direction from which the wind blows is the southwest, but this is
variable with long spells of easterly or…

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What is an anticyclone?

This is where air is descending leading to high pressure systems; here any water vapour present in
the atmosphere is evaporated leading to little cloud cover and precipitation. Winds are light as
isobars are far apart and the pressure gradient is gentle leading to lights winds…

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Monsoon Climate has 3 different seasons:

Oct-Mar: the only dry season with temperatures of 21-25°C, little rainfall and winds blowing
from the north east called the `rising Monsoon winds' - land to sea breezes.
Mar-June: this is a short season with extremely hot temperatures of 31°C, there is cloudless

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As the strong winds sweep over the sea they increase the rate of evaporation.
As this moist air keeps rising it cools, condenses and releases latent heat to form
cloud and heavy rainfall.
This warms the atmosphere further and increases instability.
A central eye starts to develop which is 3050…


Mr A Gibson


These are really valuable and will be great for you to prepare for exam questions on this topic (regardless of exam board). These can serve as notes too for your folder.

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