Hormones, Mensrtual Cycle and Controlling Fertility

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  • Hormones, Menstrual Cycle and Controlling Fertility
    • Hormones
      • Chemical Messengers which travel in the blood to activate target cells
      • Produced in various glands
        • Pituitary Gland
          • Produces FSH and LH (Menstrual Cycle)
        • Ovaries
          • Produces Oestrogen (Menstrual Cycle)
      • Slow in action, act for a long time, act in more general way
    • Menstrual Cycle
      • Stage 1- uterus lining breaks down (4 days)
      • Stage 2- lining builds up again, ready to receive a fertilised egg
      • Stage 3- an egg is released from Ovary (day 14)
      • Stage 4- wall is maintained for 14 days, if no fertilised egg has landed on uterus wall by day 28, the lining breaks down- cycle starts again
      • Follicle Stimulating Hormone- produced in Pituitary Gland, causes egg to mature in one of the ovaries, stimulates the ovaries to produce Oestrogen
      • Oestrogen- produced in ovaries, cause Pituitary Gland to produce LH, inhibits the further release of FSH
      • Luteinising Hormone- produced by Pituitary Gland, stimulates release of an egg
    • Controlling Fertility
      • The Pill (oral contraceptive)
        • Pros
          • Over 99% effective at preventing pregnancy
          • Reduces risk of getting some types of cancer
        • Cons
          • Isn't 100% effective
          • Side effects- headaches, nausea
          • Doesn't protect against STD's
      • FSH and LH Injection
        • Pros
          • Become pregnant when they couldn't before
        • Cons
          • Doesn't always work- expensive
          • Too many eggs stimulated- multiple pregnancies
      • IVF
        • Pros
          • Fertility treatment to give an infertile couple a child
        • Cons
          • Reaction- vomitting, dehydration
          • Increase risk of cancer
          • Multiple births


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