GCSE- History Paper 1- League of Nations

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  • History- League of Nations
    • Membership
      • Leadership fell to Britain and France as the USA did not join
        • Was a problem because USA= Most powerful country in the world
      • Italy and Japan were also permanent members of the council
      • B & F didn't have resources like USA- felt only trade sanctions would work if US applied them
    • Manchuria
      • 1- Sept 1931- A railway in Japan leading to Manchuria was destroyed
      • 2- China and Japan express versions of the bombing
      • 3- The league send Lord Lytton to Manchuria to find out whether the Japanese had destroyed their own railway or if China had destroyed it
      • 4- Lytton returns a year later to say Japan had blown the railway up but, Japan had already invaded Manchuria
      • 5- LofN ask them to withdraw from Manchuria but, they invaded even more of China
      • 6- They then ordered them to leave but, they instead resigned from the League
      • 7- The League was powerless to do anything as, they were in economic crisis and their sanctions were useless
    • Abyssinia
      • 1- Mussolini wanted to conquer Abyssinia as they had resources and wanted glory and revenge
      • 2- LofN wanted to avoid clash with Aby- Greatest allies against Hitler
      • 3- Mussolini hoped Brit & Fr would allow him to conquer Aby after signing the Stresa Pact
      • 4- Aby troops were slaughted by Italy's superior army and weaponry- had tanks, planes, poison gas and more experienced troops
      • 5- The League decided to ban the sale of arms in Italy
      • 6- Brit & Fr agreed to give some of Aby to Italy in private- had no right
      • 7- By May 1936 Italy had conquered Abyssinia
      • 8- The League's failure to act in Aby showed the weakness of the League and gives Hitler encouragement because Abyssinia's army is mostly destroyed
    • Why did the LofN fail?
      • French + British self interest / other priorities
      • Absent powers- USA / USSR
      • Ineffective sanctions
      • Lack of troops
      • Unfair Treaty- People don't want to uphold an unfair TofV
      • Reaching Decisions- VETO / Unanimous
  • 6- Brit & Fr agreed to give some of Aby to Italy in private- had no right


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