A2 Psychology - Healthy Living

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  • Healthy Living
    • Theories of health belief
      • Locus of Control
        • Internal (in control of life) External (fate)
        • Wallston et al - MHLC scale; internal, powerful others + fate.
        • Norman et al
          • A - does LOC have an effect on health behaviour?
          • S - 11632 welsh
          • M - smoking, diet, exercise + alcohol questionnaire correlated with MHLC categories.
          • R- Positive correlation
          • C- LOC impacts health behaviour
        • LOC -  feel responsible - research to encourage health.
      • Health Belief Model
        • Severity, suseptibility, cues to action, benefits, cost affecting health behaviour.
        • Becker
          • A - HBM explain adherence asthma medication - mother to child
          • S - 111 mums +kids mean age 31 + 8
          • M - Mums belief correlated with medicates - 45 min interviews. 70% had blood test.
          • R - Positive correlation -serious/belief/disruption Negative correlation - complain/disruption/chemist distance
          • C - HBM - useful predictor of health behaviour
        • Factors influence health behaviour - more benefits more likely.
      • Self Efficacy
        • Belief in ability - Bandura; based on past.
        • Murray and Mcmillan
          • A - Role of models - breast examination
          • S - 391 woman Northern Ireland
          • M - Q's on screening behaviour/health belief/health motivation/cancer knowledge/LOC/ emotional control/confidence
          • R -Confidence = best predictor
          • C - Self efficacy can predict health behaviours.
        • Give practical achieveable ways to improve health behaviours.
    • Methods of Health Promotion
      • Media Campaign
        • e.g. Anti Aids safe sex ad 1980's + Chip Pan Fires 1976-1984
        • Cowpe
          • A - effectiveness of media - chip pan fires
          • S - 10 UK regions w/ TV
          • M - Statistics 1976-1982 + Consumer surveys 1976-1983
          • R - Chip pan fires reduced 7%-25%/ Overlap areas- less reduction/ awarness increase to 28%
          • C - Media = reduced CPF's and increased awareness
        • Media decreases unhealthy behaviour in a fast way but people can become desensitised.
      • Legislation
        • against the law e.g. mobiles + driving.
        • Dannenburg
          • A - Cycle helmet wearing in children
          • S - 47 Schools
          • M - Howard County; law Montgomary County; advert Baltimore County; neither. Q's on helmet usage, law knowledge etc
          • R - HC increased to 37.5% helmet usage + 87% aware of law BC increased to 11.1% helmet usage
          • C - operant conditioning - law = deterrent.
      • Fear Arousal
        • Create fear e.g. show smokers lungs.
        • Janis + Feshback
          • A - Fear arousal on emotion + behaviour
          • S - US conneticut High School freshmen
          • M - Strong Fear; gruesome tooth decay Mod Fear; less graphic Min Fear; Diagrams etc. Q's one week before, straight after + one week after lecture
          • R - 36% min fear 8% Strong fear (improve oral hygiene)
          • C- Works but stops when too strong.
        • Too much off putting as focus on anxiety
    • Adherence to Medical Regimes
      • Reasons for Non-Adherence
        • Unsure if medicine is working/side effects/thinking diagnosis is wrong
        • Bulpitt
          • A-Non-adherence High blood pressure medication
          • M- identify physical + psychological effects of drug treatment e.g. well-being/hobbies etc
          • R - Sleepiness, Impacted on hobbies + 8% sexual activity
          • C - side effects outweigh benefits less likely to take.
        • If costs of meds outweigh benefits rational to decision to not take is made
      • Measures of Non-Adherence
        • Can check adherence via asking (Self report), Check bottles to see if going down (behavioural) or test to see if symptoms are improving (physiological)
        • Becker
        • Self reports (45 min interview) and Physiological measures (70% had blood test) can be used to measure adherence
      • Improving Non-adherence
        • operant conditioning to encourage patients e.g. Funhaler
        • Watt et al
          • A- funhaler can improve kids adherence
          • S- 32 Australian children
          • M - Week 1; inhaler Week 2; Funhaler. Questionnaire end of each week.
          • R - 38% more w/ funhaler
          • c - Child friendly features improves childs adherence
        • Operant conditioning works in improving adherence.

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