Health and Disease

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  • Section 5 - Health, Disease and the development of medicines
    • Health and Disease
      • Health = "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity"
      • Communicable diseases can be passed from person to person
      • Non-Communicable diseases can't be passed from person to person
      • If you are affected by one disease you are more susceptible to others
    • STIs
      • HIV is a virus
        • Infects living cells to reproduce
        • Kills white blood cells
          • Immune system deteriorates
          • More susceptible to other diesease
      • Chlamydia is a bacterial infection
        • Can result in infertility
        • Can be reduced by screening, safe sex, avoiding sexual contact
    • Fighting Disease
      • Physical barriers
        • Skin heals cuts and keeps microorganisms out
        • Hairs and mucus trap pathogens at the openings
      • Chemical Barriers
        • Stomach produces hydrochloric acid - low pH destroys pathogens
        • Eyes produce lysozyme in tears that kills bacteria on surface of eye
      • Immune System
        • Pathogens have unique molecules called antigens
        • Antibodies created to bind on to pathogens so white blood cells can target them
    • Memory Lymphocytes and Immunisation
      • Memory lymhocytes are created in response to foreign antigen and stored for secondary immune response
        • Body becomes immune and if that type of pathogen attacks again it will respond quickly before symptoms develop
      • Immunisation
        • Injection of dead pathogens
          • Antigens trigger the creation of memory lymphocytes to make the patient immune to that disease
    • Antibiotics and other medicines
      • Antibiotics only target bacterial cells
        • inhibit processes such as the building of cell walls
          • this stops them multiplying
      • Development of new drugs
        • Preclinical testing
          • First tested on human cells and tissues in the lab
          • Then tested on live animals to correct the dosage
        • Clinical testing
          • Tested on healthy volunteers to make sure there are no harmful side effects
          • Drug is tested on those infected with the disease
            • Placebo effect - Two groups that conduct blind trials
              • Doctors and patients don't know who was given the real drug at first to give an accurate representation of results
    • Non-Communicable Diseases
      • Lifestyle factors increase risk
        • Smoking increases susceptibility to cardiovascular disease
        • Poor diet/malnutrition
        • Alcohol
        • Lack of exercise
      • Wide-ranging effects
        • in areas with high level of obesity, smoking, alcohol, etc. there is more chance of disease
        • Puts pressure on NHS
    • Measures of Obesity
      • BMI (Body Mass Index)
        • Fat and sugar from diet is stored as excess body fat without enough excercise
        • Can be innaccurate due to muscle mass causing some to be recorded as obese
      • Waist-to-hip ratio
        • Higher ratio, more likely to be carrying weight around middle
        • Above 1 for males and 0.85 for females is known as abdominal obesity
    • Treatments for Cardiovascular Disease
      • Affects heart and blood vessels
        • Cholesterol build up causes blockages and blood clots
          • Can cause heart attacks or strokes if heart muscles or brain is deprived of oxygen
      • Lifestyle changes such as balanced diets and stopping smoking can prevent CVD
      • Statins, Anticoagulants and Antihypertensives prevent blood clots and fatty deposits building up
      • Stents keep arteries open for blood to flow through
      • Heart transplants require drugs to prevent the body rejecting the new organ

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