GM'd organisms

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  • GM organisms
    • Drugs from animals
      • Pharming
        • Ethical Issues
          • Large Quantities - more available
          • Harmful side effects for animal
        • Hereditary antimicrobial deficiency
          • Makes blood clots more likely to form
            • Makes blood clots more likely to form
          • High yields from goats
            • 1. DNA fragments injected into goat embryo
            • 2. Embryo implanted into female goat
              • When offspring is born - tested if protein is produced
                • If yes - Selective Breeding to produce a herd
            • 3. Protein is extracted from milk
    • Insect-Resistance Plants
      • Soybeans
        • Greatly reduced by insect pests
        • Important in food production
        • Gene originally found in Bacillus thuringiensis (bt)
          • Codes for protein toxic to insects
            • 2. Inserted back into at
              • SB cells infected with transformed bacteria
            • 1. Gene isolated from bt - RE & inserted into plasmid
              • From Agrobacterium tumefaciers (at)
            • 3. Gene inserted into SB cells DNA - GM plant
            • Ethic Issues
              • Encourage monoculture
                • Decrease biodiversity & crops vulnerable to disease
              • Decrease no. chemical pesticides
    • Genetic Engineering on pathogens for research
      • Treatments for disease
        • Tumor cells have receptors on membranes for the poliovirus
          • Polio-virus will recognise and attack them
            • By GE the PV to inactivate the genes that cause poliomyelitis, scientists can use it to attack and kill the cancer cells without causing a disease
      • Ethical Issues
        • Treat previously un-treatable diseases
        • Mass outbreak of disease
        • GM'd pathogen reverts back to original form - outbreak
        • Wrong hands = used maliciously
    • GE organisms can be 'owned' by big companies
      • Different insitutions share knowledge & skills
        • GM products produced at a faster rate
      • Some = legal protection
        • By law, control who uses the product & for a set period of time
      • Ethical Issues
        • Owner = Generate £ from selling
        • Poorer farmers = can't afford GM'd plants


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