Germany 1918 - 1945

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  • Germany 1918-1945
    • Emerge from defeat after WW1
      • german revolution Oct-nov 1918
        • kiel mutiny
          • soldiers and workers rebellions spreading
          • german Kaiser had to abdicate
            • exile in holland
          • naval mutiny
        • friedrich ebert assumed power
          • social democrat
            • largest party in reichstag
              • won 1919 elections
          • chancellor
          • arranged Weimar constitution
            • chancellor
              • appoints team of ministers to form government
              • requires majority support of
                • reichstag
                  • german parliament
                  • veto power
                    • could be overruled by 2/3s Reichstag vote
                  • elected by all adults over 20 on system of proportional representation
                    • approximate percentage of votes meant number of seats
                      • considered fair
                      • disadvantages
                        • extremist parties got a place in the reichstag
                        • many parties were considered
                          • hard for any party to even get 50%
                            • all governments were coalition governments
                              • short life
                              • instability
                        • election almost every 18 months
                  • maximum term
                    • 4 years
                  • makes laws
                  • controls budget
                  • members can be ministers
              • reichsrat
                • veto power
                  • could be overruled by 2/3s Reichstag vote
                • representatives from 18 provinces
                • advises laws to chancellor
                  • chancellor
                    • appoints team of ministers to form government
                    • requires majority support of
                      • reichstag
                        • german parliament
                        • elected by all adults over 20 on system of proportional representation
                          • approximate percentage of votes meant number of seats
                            • considered fair
                            • disadvantages
                              • extremist parties got a place in the reichstag
                              • many parties were considered
                                • hard for any party to even get 50%
                                  • all governments were coalition governments
                                    • short life
                                    • instability
                              • election almost every 18 months
                        • maximum term
                          • 4 years
                        • makes laws
                        • controls budget
                        • members can be ministers
                    • reichsrat
                      • representatives from 18 provinces
                      • advises laws to chancellor
                      • appoints and dismisses chancellor
                        • president
                          • elected every 7 years by all adults over 20
                          • appoints and dismisses senior officers
                          • article 48
                            • in times of emergency, president can disregard constitution and rule by decree
                • appoints and dismisses chancellor
                  • president
                    • elected every 7 years by all adults over 20
                    • appoints and dismisses senior officers
                    • article 48
                      • in times of emergency, president can disregard constitution and rule by decree
          • social instability
            • street violence
            • political chaos
          • spartacists
            • communist
            • wanted to overthrow government
              • spartacist uprising 1919
                • karl liebnecht
                  • leaders
                    • rosa luxemburg
                    • murdered
                      • due to army and freikorps
                        • seized headquarters
                      • failed because
                        • spartacists were divided as to which tactic to use
                          • delay
                          • immediate violence
                • rosa luxemburg
                • formed revolutionary committee
                • seized newspaper offices
                • general strike
                • barricades
                • armed street fighting against opponents
                • failed because
                  • spartacists were divided as to which tactic to use
                    • delay
                    • immediate violence
                • significance
                  • weak government proved
                    • had to rely on freikorps
                  • led to other communist uprising in bavaria
                    • stopped by freikorps
                      • had to rely on freikorps
                  • communism remained a significant influence in Germany until early 1930s
      • recovery
        • gustav stresemann
          • plan
            • stop strike in ruhr
            • rentenmark currency introduced
            • reparations resumed
              • dawes plan 1924
                • USA loan of 800 million gold marks
                  • demanded loans back
                    • Germany had to pay back
                      • extremely high unemployment
                • Germany's reparations were reduced to only what they could afford
                • reichmark instead of rentenmark
                • hyperinflation stopped
                • industry expanded
                • exports increased
                • by 1928 industrial production increased more than it ever had
          • improved Germany's profile within international community
            • joined league of nations 1926
        • 1924-1929
        • unemployment remained high
        • family sector never recovered
        • most economic revival  was based on USA loans
          • Wall street crash 1929
            • great depression
              • demanded loans back
                • Germany had to pay back
                  • extremely high unemployment
              • not many exports
              • support for Nazis and communists
                • 13% in 1928 grew to 52% in 1932
                • it was clear thet the Weimar government could only succeed in good conditions
        • Locarno treaties
          • placed Germany on equal level as other signatories
            • guaranteeing frontiers for Britain, france, and Germany and belgium
        • young plan
          • reduced reparations to 2 billion GBP
        • cultural
          • art
            • key features
              • expressionism
              • rejection  of traditional forms
              • critical interpretations of new political and social order
          • films
          • music
            • not popular with right wing
              • dance halls
              • cafes
              • books
              • films
              • many artists fired and sent abroad
          • books
          • night clubs
            • not popular with right wing
              • dance halls
              • cafes
              • many artists fired and sent abroad
          • restaurants
      • Nazis
        • Third Reich
          • Nazi regime 1933-1945
        • establishment of Nazi party
          • german workers party by anton drexler
            • hitler joined
              • publicity
              • propaganda
              • replaced drexler
              • founded SA
              • failed to seize power in beer hall in munich putsch
            • 25 point plan
              • greater germany
                • austria
                • czechoslovakia
                • poland
              • destroy treaty of Versailles and saint germain
              • additional territory for food supplies and surplus population
              • german citizenship only for true germans not jews
              • no immigrants
              • all citizens are equal
              • nationalization of public industry
              • profit-sharing in heavy industries
              • improved welfare provision for elderly
              • special state provision for gifted children
              • encouragement of physical activites for young people
              • strong central government
        • nazi opposition
          • trade unions
            • banned 1933, but some activists with left wing groups continued work in secret and planned illegal strikes and revolutions
          • youth
            • edelweiss pirates and navajos gave refuge to anti-nazi teenagers, and graffitied walls. also white rose, group of university students
          • army
            • general beck planned to overthrow hitler, impeded by bloodless takeover of czechoslovakia
            • after stalingrad, senior army officers planned to assassinate hitler. bomb plot 1944 failed
              • 5k executed
          • churches
            • churchmen from both, roman catholic and protestant churches spoke out against nazi regime
            • euthanasia was stopped due to a bishop's speech against it
            • pastor niemoller made a protestant church and spent 8 years in a concentration camp
          • left wing
            • communists and social democrats were secretly against nazis

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