Gender Theorist Revision

  • Created by: Elisha01
  • Created on: 02-05-19 10:25
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  • Gender Theorist Revision
    • Phonology
      • Howard Giles
        • Accommo-dation Theory
          • Suggests we adjust our speech to accommodate who we are speaking to
          • Divergence: speech styles move closer
            • friendly/ positive connotations
          • Convergence: speech styles move further apart
            • negative connotations?
      • Tudgill
        • Accent and Dialect
          • women use more standard forms than men in all social classes
          • women more sensitive to prestige forms in formal situations
            • positive prestige associated with upper classes
            • negative prestige associated with lower classes
          • women correct their speech to match class above
            • hyper-correction: often introduced to avoid vulgarity / informality
          • women's sensitivity to linguistic forms is linked to their insecure social position
          • women over report. men under report
      • Mark Newbrook
        • West Wirral Study
          • women hyper-correct and avoid scouse syllables
      • Lakoff
        • suggests women use more question intonations for declaratives
          • suggests they are tentative
      • Macaulay
        • Glasgow Study
          • older women use more prestige forms
    • Lexis
      • forms of address used
      • Robin Lakoff
        • adjective choice
          • women use 'empty' adjectives
            • eg. nice, lovely
        • intensifiers used
          • eg. I'm SO glad
        • women use fewer taboo forms
      • Jenny Cheshire
        • reading study
          • women use more Standard English
      • Sydney Eisikovits
        • girls avoid multiple negation & taboo
    • Grammar
      • Tag Questions:
        • Lakoff
          • see it as a hesitancy and tentativeness
      • Commands & Modals
        • boys use more aggravated directives & explicit commands
          • boys groups are more hierarchical than girls
          • eg. "get off my steps"
        • girls use more mitigated directives
          • boys groups are more hierarchical than girls
          • eg. "let's go"
    • Discourse
      • Zimmerman & West
        • men overlap and interrupt women
          • men delay minimal response
            • signals a lack of interest
      • Jennifer Coates
        • women overlap and share turns (duetting)
      • Leet-Pellengrini
        • men select topics and dominate
      • Soskin & John
        • men are more verbose in married heterosexual interactions
    • Pragmatics
      • Spencer
        • difference model
          • society has different expectations of men and women
      • Tannen & Cameron
        • difference model
          • men and women are different so use language differently
        • Holmes
          • women give compliments based on appearance
        • Brown & Levinson
          • face theory
            • positive and negative face
            • face threatening acts

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