Gender Differences in Achievement

  • Created by: Megnicpip
  • Created on: 14-06-18 14:52
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  • Gender Differences
    • External Factors
      • Changes in girl's aspirations
        • Sharpe: girls were more likely to see their future as an independent women
        • Beck et al: individualism, it is valued more strongly than in the past
        • O'Connors: 14-17 year olds found that marriage and children were not a major life goal
      • Changes in family structure
        • Increase number of female headed lone parents therefore more women breadwinners
        • increase in divorce rates means more girls look to provide for themselves
      • Feminism
        • McRobbie: girls magazine sin the 70's emphasised the importance of getting married. Nowdays, they emphasise assertive independent women
      • Womens employment
        • pay gap has decreased from 30% to 15%
        • Positive role models
      • Class, Gender and Ambition
        • Reay: limited aspirations reflect the limited opportunities they perceive as being available to them
        • Biggart: more likely to face a precarious position in the labour market and to see motherhood as only viable option
    • Internal Factors
      • Radical Feminists
        • System is patriarchal: sexual harassment, limitations in girls subject choice, more male headteachers
      • Equal Opportunities Policies
        • GIST and WISE
        • National Curriculum meant boys and girls can study same subjects
        • Boaler: provided meritocracy where girls and boys that work hard do well
      • Role Models
        • Increase in female headteachers and deputies providing role models for girls with highly educated teachers
      • GCSE and Coursework
        • Gorard: product of the changed system of assessment rather than any more gerneral failing boys, girls are more conscientious and better organised
        • Elwood:the argument can only influence the gender gap not fully explain it
      • Teacher Attention
        • French: boys recieved more negative ttention from the teacher
        • Francis: boys were disciplined more harshly than girls
        • Swann: boys dominated whole class discussions
      • Challenging Stereotypes
        • Weiner: teachers are more likely to challenge stereotyped behavior providing positive role models
      • Selection and League Tables
        • Slee: boys are more of a liability and give a school a rough image
    • Identity and Class
      • Being loud
        • to be viewed as other girls view boys assertive and independent, this is misinterpreted as aggression, as they don't conform
      • Boyfriends
        • gets in the way causing lower aspirations, reject masculine subjects and adopt traditional stereotype roles
      • Symbolic capital
        • status, recognition and sense of worth, wc girls gain this however it conflicts with schools values
      • Hyper heterosexual feminine identities
        • girls invest a lot of time to look a certain way, this is to avoid being ridiculed
        • interferes a girls education the preferred middle class identity excludes working class
      • Successful WC girls
        • Evans: girls wanted to go to university to increase earning power to help families
        • Skeggs: caring is a crucial part of this identity
        • Archer: staying local limits subject choice and market value of degree
      • WC dilemma
        • either gain symbolic capital or gain educational capital, this causes a struggle
    • Boys and Achievement
      • Laddish Subcultures
        • Epstein: WC boys are liekly to be harassed, labelled as sissies and subjected to homophobic verbal abuse
        • Francis: boys were more concerned about being labelled swots
        • peer pressure to be heavily competitive at sports, tend to reject schoolwork so not labelled gay
      • Feminisation
        • Sewell: education has become feminsied they prefer methodological work and attentiveness in class, schools do not nurture masculine traits
      • Literacy
        • Government policies
          • National Literacy Strategy: focuses on boys reading
          • Dads and sons campaign: encourages fathers to become more involved
      • Shortage of Male Primary Teachers
        • Read: male teachers are better to impose strict discipline among boys
        • Francis: 2/3 of 7-8 year olds believed gender made no difference
        • Haese: male teachers in the UK have a one in four chance of gaining a headship
      • Globalisation and Decline of Traditional Male Jobs
        • Mitsos et al: the decline in male employment opportunities has led to an identity crisis, reduce self eswwm and motivation
    • Subject Choice
      • Subject Images
        • Kerlly: science teachers are often male textbooks relate to boys
        • IOP: all girls school 24 times more likely to take physics
        • Colley: the way computer science is taught puts females off
      • Role Socialisation
        • Norman: different toys, dress differentley and encouraged to take part in different activities
        • Byrne: teachers encourage boys to be tough and show initiative
        • Browne et al: children are more confident when engaging in tasks seen as part of their gender domain
      • Identity and Peer Pressure
        • Pachter: girls who are sporty have to cope with an image that contradicts the stereotype
        • Dewar: boys wuld call girls lesbian or butch if they were interested in sport
      • Career Opportunities
        • wmens jobs tend to be similar to housewives
        • if boys get the message nurses are female they wont go for it
    • Sexual and Gender Identities
      • The Male Gaze
        • Mac an Ghalil: male pupils and teachers look girls up and down, a form of surveilance
      • Verbal Abuse
        • Paechter: maintains male power, pupils police each other
        • Parker: function is simply to reinforce gender norms and identity
      • Double Standards
        • male teachers tend to ignore male promiscuity
        • Feminists: reinforce gender inequalities
      • Male Peer Groups
        • wc definition based on toughness
      • Female Peer Groups
        • Nike identities
        • frigid shaming
      • Teachers are no better!
        • Mac an Ghalil: male teachers told boys off for behaving like girls, ignore verbal abuse of girls
        • Skey et al: male teachers rescue female teachers, reinforcing the idea that women cant cope

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