Gender and Education

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  • Gender differences in education
    • Boys under achieving
      • globalisation - decline in traditional men jobs
        • male identity crisis. Loss of motivation and self-esteem
      • feminisation of schooling
        • Sewell - boys fall behind because education has become feminised
        • assessments have been feminised - more coursework
        • lack of male primary school teachers - only 1 in 6 are men
      • lack of male role models at home
        • increase in number of female-headed families means boys don't see a male role model going out to work
        • less likely to see the value of employment & qualifications
      • Literacy
        • parents spend less time reading to sons - mothers read to children so seen as a feminine activity
        • Boys leisure interests don't encourage language and communication skills
          • girls 'bedroom culture' does
        • because language and literacy are important in most subjects - boys poorer skills impact their achievement
      • 'laddish' subcultures
        • Francis - found boys were more concerned than girls about being labelled swots
          • WC culture sees non-manual work as as effeminate and inferior
        • Epstein - found pro-school WC boys were likely to be labelled as 'gay'
    • Gender and subject choice
      • In the national curriculum
        • most subjects compulsory but where their is choice G&B choose differently eg. food tech vs DT
      • In post-16 education
        • more choice available, larger gender differences occur. eg boys opt for maths & girls for sociology
      • in vocational subjects
        • gender segregation at its highest. only 1% of construction apprentices are female
      • early socialisation
      • gender domains
      • gendered subject images
      • gender identity and peer pressure
      • gendered careers
    • Gender identity and schooling
      • Connell - school reproduced hegemonic masculinity
      • feminists argue school acts as a form of social control to reproduce patriarchy
        • Lees - boys call girls slags, but there is no equivalent for males.
      • Haywood & Mac an Ghaill - male teachers reinforced gender identities by telling off boys for 'behaving like girls'
      • The male gaze - form of social control
      • Double standards. Lees - boys boast about their own sexual exploits but label girls negatively for the same behaviour


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