gender and education achievement

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  • Gender and Differential Achievement in Education
    • Trends
      • Girls get better results in Primary school tests
      • girls get better results in nearly every subject at GCSE
      • girls more likely pass A-levels
      • more women than men go to uni in UK
      • In past boys outperformed girls because lack of opportunities for femals
        • Browne: 'rollercoaster' of acheivement
    • Internal
      • Mitsos and Browne: say teaching feminised. Women more likely classroom teachers, gives girls positive role models
      • textbooks less likely stereotype girls into passive role
      • Swann and Graddol: high female achievement is result of quality of interaction with teacher. Most teachers time spent with boys focused on behaviour management, for girls help with their work
        • Jackson: schools label boys negatively- can lead to self-fulfilling prophecy and lowering schools league table position
      • Archer: femals face problems in school
        • high achieving Asian and Chinese girls negatively labelled as robots who can't do independent thought
        • Black working class girls labelled loud and aggressive
      • Subject choices
        • Kelly: science seen as masculine subject and boys dominate science classroom, more likely take charge in experiements
        • pressures conform to social norms and parental expectations encourage take traditional subjects for gender
        • national curriculum makes girls do more traditionally 'male' subjects eg science and technology
      • Subcultures
        • Willis: studied group of working class boys. Boys rejected school, formed anti-school subculture. Coped with own underachievement by having subculture school doesn't matter, having laugh more important
        • mac and Ghaill: subcultures complicated, lots of different types. Boys may join macho lad subculture because crisis of masculinity or boys also join pro-school subculture
        • Fuller: African -Caribbean girls formed subculture worked hard to prove negative labelling wrong
    • External
      • feminism movement: changed womens rights, raised expectations and raised awareness of inequality. True equality with males not fully reached
      • changing prorities
        • McRobbie: magazines like Jackie in 70s emphasised importance of getting married. Now priorities changed, women see positive role models in media
        • Sue Sharpe: 1976: love, marriage, husbands, children, career. 1994: careers and independence
      • changes in family
        • divorce reform act (1970) Abortion reform act (1967)
          • increased divorce rates and lone parent families, decrease un family size
        • Primary socialisation: boys encouraged physical activity; girls encouraged read and communicate- girls may be more equipped skills for education
      • changes in employment
        • Wilkinson: growing service sector created more feminised career opportunities- females underwent GENDERQUAKE, no longer restricted to family life
        • Sex discrimination Act (1975). Equal pay act (1970). Pay gap fallen by 17%. More women breaking 'glass ceiling'. Increased opportunities made females extremely ambitios
        • Mac an Ghaill: crisis of masculinity: - male identity crisis as manual jobs in decline - rise female independence reduced role of breadwinner for men - parents spend less time reading to sons; reading seen as uncool and girly


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