GCSE Biology - Ecology

The whole of the ecology chapter in moderate detail.

  • Created by: archfoulk
  • Created on: 11-02-19 16:44
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  • ECOLOGY
    • Ecosystems
      • Relationships
        • All the organisms living in a habitat as well as the non-living parts of the habitat
        • Individual organisms
        • Populations - groups of individuals of the same species
        • Communities - many populations in the same habitat
      • Stable community
        • All of the species and environmental factors are in balance so population size stay constant
        • Tropical rainforest and oak woodlands are examples
      • Adaptions
        • Factors affecting communities
          • Abiotic - Non- Living
            • Light intensity
            • Temperature
            • Humidity
            • Soil pH
            • Mineral content
            • Wind
            • CO2 levels
            • O2 levels
          • Biotic - Living
            • Food
            • Predators
            • Disease
            • Competition
        • Enable organisms to survive in their habitat
        • Structural, behavioural or functional
        • Organisms that live in extreme conditions are extremphiles like bacteria
    • Cycles and feeding relationships
      • Recycling materials
        • All materials in the living world need to be recycled to be used again in future organisms
        • Carbon cycle describes how carbon is recycled in nature. It relies on decomposer
        • Water cycle describes how fresh water circulates between living organisms, rivers and the sea.
      • Feeding relationships
        • Shown in food chains
        • All food chains begin with a producer (which makes molecules)
        • Producer is usually a plant which makes glucose by photosytheis
        • Producers are eaten by primary consumers which may be eaten by secondary, then tertiary.
        • Consumers that eat animals are predators
        • Animals eaten by others are prey
        • Top consumers are apex predators - carnivores who aren't prey
        • No. prey + predators rise and fall in a stable community
    • Disrupting ecosystems
      • Biodiversity
        • Variety of all the different species of organisms on Earth
        • High biodiversity helps ecosystems to be stable because of interdependence
        • Factors putting biodiversity at risk
          • Water availability
          • Temperature
          • Atmospheric gases
          • Change due to...
            • Season changes
            • Geographic activity
            • Human interaction
            • Pollution
      • Pollution
        • Kills plants and animals which reduces biodiversity
        • As human population increases waste does too
        • Can occur..
          • In water
          • From sewage
          • From fertilisers or toxic chemicals
          • In air from gases
          • On land from landfill
      • Overexploiation
        • Taking too many resources puts biodiversity at risk
        • Building, quarrying, farming and dumping take land from organisms
        • Deforestation
        • Global warming is an increase in the Earths temperature
        • Global warming causes...
          • Loss of habitat by flooding
          • Changes in distribution of species
          • Changes to migration patterns
          • Temperature increase
          • Sea level rise
      • Conserving biodiversity
        • Scientists and governments have tried to reduce pollution and overexploitation to help maintain biodiversity
        • Methods of maintaining biodiversity include...
          • Breeding programs
          • Protecting rare habitats
          • Encouraging farmers to keep field margins and hedgerows
          • Reducing deforestation
          • Reducing CO2 emissions
          • Recycling resources rather than landfill

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