- Durkheim: Not everyone is socialised effectively. Complex division of labour leads to Anomie. Punishment reaffirms society's norms. Too much tears society apart, too little prevents change.
- Davis: Prostitution is a safety valve. Cohen: Deviance is a warning of insufficient institutions. Erikson: social control sustains a certain level of crime.
- Strain Theory
- Subcultural Strain Theories
- Cohen: status frustration causes people to make their own subcultures. They commit non-utilitarian crimes to punish society.
- Cloward and Ohlin: Criminal Subcultures-utilitarian crimes, Conflict Subcultures- Non-utilitarian crimes, Retreatist Subcultures-double failures.