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  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 10-05-15 18:05
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  • FOREIGN POLICY 1509-1529 (under Henry VIII)
    • 1512 - expedition under Marquis of Dorset forced to rabble
      • Failure. Premature military glory.
      • 1513 - Henry's Navy defeated at Brest.
      • Was not led by Henry himself
    • 1513 - Battle of the Spurs. Captured Tournai and Therouanne
      • 30,000 well equipped men
      • captured Tournai that Edward III could not capture previously
      • outweighs failure in 1512
      • can be seen to benefit Ferdinand more as he felt Therouanne threatened his territories. Tournai benefitted Maximillian.
      • expensive to rebuild defences in Tournai.
      • outweighs failure in 1512.
      • Max and Ferdinand abandon Henry by signing peace treaty with France
    • spent 920,000 from 1511-1514
      • Nobles liked Henry spending money on warfare - Renaissance King unlike Henry VII who raised taxes and did not go to war.
      • By 1514 the treasury was bankrupt.
    • Battle at Flodden Field 1513
      • 10,000 scotsmen killed + James IV
      • Margaret, Henry's sister acting as regent
    • 1514 - England made peace with France. St Germaine-en-Laye.
      • Henry kept Tournai and received increased French pension
      • Henry's youngest sister to marry Louis XII
    • 1518- Treaty of London & Anglo French Treaty
      • Non aggression across Europe. Wolsey + Henry = powerful following diplomatic disaster when Francis came to power and made peace with his enemies in 1517.
      • Tournai returned to France for 600,00 crowns and Mary would marry daupher of France
    • 1521 - Treaty of Bruges
      • Francis took military action against Charles despite TOL. Agreed that an English army would invade France unless Francis agreed to make peace.
        • but co operating with allies was more important to accommodate England's interests
      • 1523 - Promises of Henry to become king of France from Charles. Duke of Bourbon let army down.
      • cost 400,000
      • Rather than capture Boulogne which was realistic and useful to strengthen England's hold on the Calais Pale, they went to Paris for Charles' interest
      • The  enmity between Charles and Francis put England in a powerful position, allowing them to have a choice over which power offered the best diplomatic deal
        • realistically, England's interests were tied with Charles bc Catherine of Aragon + Flanders cloth market
    • Field of the Cloth of Gold 1520
      • Nothing of lasting diplomatic value
      • Shows ability to put together events well
      • Met Charles at Gravelines agreeing neither would make a separate peace treaty with France
        • the emperor wanted English support
    • 1525 - Battle of Pavia
      • Charles totally destroyed French army and captured Francis I.
      • Henry had chance of claiming French throne but Henry failed to win Charles' support
      • The Amicable Grant was an attempt of raising funds for troops to be invade France while she was leaderless but failed - humiliating.
      • Treaty of the More - 1525. England abandoned territorial claims to France and resumed annual pension of 100,000 crowns
    • Henry spent 1.4 million fighting wars 1511-1525 on an income of 110,000 a year while France and Spain had 3x and 5x more
    • Wars drained his private resources, led to revolts following heavy taxation, lost his chance to attack France, however war was not the only objective. Henry made significant diplomatic achievements eg. 1518 + 1520.
      • gaining territory was not Henry's only objective. He used it as a negotiating device eg. 1527 agreed to forego warfare in return for French help for annulment.
        • Tournai and Therouanne were bargaining tools
    • 1525 marked the year that Charles failed to be a useful ally by refusing to support the annulment which had consequences for H.
      • Sponsored Anti-Hapsburg League of Coganc 1526
    • 1527 - Sack of Rome
      • captured Pope Clement VII
        • made a papal solution to annulment less likely England needed an alliance to avoid isolation.
    • 1528 - Dutch Trade Emargo
      • force Charles into negotiations but lead to the collapse of Flanders cloth market
        • Henry and Wolsey forced to give up embargo and showed that England could not afford to turn her back on the Habsburgs
    • 1529 - negotiations with Francis and Charles failed bc Wolsey was too tied in Henry's fp
    • Foreign policy developed as a flexible response to changing European context


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