Physics paper 2 content :)

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  • If two act on an object along the same line, the resultant force is
    • Their difference, if the forces act in opposite directions
    • Their sum, if the forces act in the same direction
  • Magnetism and Electromagnet-ism
    • 12.1 = The electromagne-tic spectrum
      • Electromagne-tic waves
        • Electric waves and magnetic disturbances that can be used ti transfer energy from a source to an absorber.
    • 12.2 = Light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves
    • 12.3 = Communicati-ons
      • Radio waves of different frequencies are used for different purposes because the wavelength of the waves affect:
        • How far they can travel
        • How much they spread
        • How much information they can carry
      • Microwave's are used for satellite TV signals
      • Optical fibres are very thin transparent fibres that are used to transmit communication signals by light and infrared radiation
    • 12.4 = Ultraviolet waves, X-rays, and gamma rays
      • Ultraviolet waves have shorter wavelength than visible light
      • Gamma rays are used to kill harmful bacteria in food, to sterilise surgical equipment, and to kill cancer cells.
      • Ionising radiation makes uncharged atoms become charged
      • X-rays and gamma rays damage living tissues when they pass through it
    • 13.1 = Magnetic fields
      • Like poles repel, and unlike poles attract
      • The magnetic field lines of a bar magnet curve around from the north pole of the bar magnet to the south
      • Induced magnetism is created in an unmagnetised magnetic material when the material is placed in the magnetic field
      • Steel is used instead of iron to make permanent magnets because steel does not lose its magnetism easily, but iron does
    • 13.2 Magnetic fields of electric currents
      • An electromagnetic a solenoid that has an iron core. It consists of an insulated wire wrapped around an iron bar
      • The magnetic field lines in a solenoid are parallel to its axis and are all in the same direction. A uniform magnetic field is one in which the magnetic field lines are parallel
      • Increasing the current makes the magnetic field stronger. Reversing the direction of the current reverses the magnetic field lines
      • The magnetic field lines around a wire are circles centred on the wire in a plane perpendicular to the wire
  • The electromagnet-ic spectrum (in order of decreasing wavelength, increasing frequency and energy) is made of:
    • Radio waves
    • Microwaves
    • Ultraviolet waves
    • X-rays and gamma rays
    • Visible light
    • 12.1 = The electromagne-tic spectrum
      • Electromagne-tic waves
        • Electric waves and magnetic disturbances that can be used ti transfer energy from a source to an absorber.
  • Microwaves
    • Used to carry satellite TV programmes and mobile phone calls
    • 12.2 = Light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves

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