AQA Additional Science P2 Notes

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Contents
Unit 1: Motion
Unit 2: Speeding Up and Slowing Down
Unit 3: Work and Energy
Unit 4: Static Electricity
Unit 5: Current Electricity
Unit 6: Mains Electricity
Unit 7: Nuclear Physics
[This is Unit 2 Physics, Additional Physics. This section comes after Core Physics in an AQA Course
(Unit 1)]
P2-1 : Motion
Speed and Velocity
The table below shows the distances travelled by a car over a given amount of time:
We can represent this as a graph:
We call this type of graph a distance-time graph as it plots distance travelled against time taken. A
slope on a distance-time graph represents speed. The steeper the slope is, the greater the speed.
We can use chosen figures to calculate the speed from the graph.

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This formula can be rearranged to show either of the following formulae which we use to work out
distance or time:
Generally, speed is measured in metres per second (m/s).
Velocity is speed in a given direction. This means that if a moving object changes direction, its
velocity changes even if its speed stays the same. When the velocity changes, we say it accelerates.
Acceleration is calculated using the following equation:
Acceleration is generally measured in metres per second squared (m/s²).…read more

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P2-2 : Speeding Up and Slowing Down
Equal and Opposite Forces
We measure forces in newtons, N. Objects always exert equal and opposite forces on each other.
For example, if object A exerted a force upon object B, object B would exert an opposite force of the
same power on object A. These are often referred to as action and reaction forces.…read more

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If the object is on the Earth, not falling, we use:
weight (N) = mass (kg) x gravitational field strength (N/kg)
When an object falls through a fluid (i.e. a liquid or a gas, e.g. air), the fluid exerts opposite forces on
the falling object reducing its motion, for example air resistance. The faster the object falls, the
greater the frictional force.…read more

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When a force acts on a moving object (or an object which is able to move), its momentum changes.
The equation below describes this:
force = change in momentum ÷ time taken for change
N.B. Look at car safety features, especially air bags and crumple zones, to investigate how we make
use of momentum changes.
P2-4 : Static Electricity
Charge
If two insulating materials rub against each other, electrons are rubbed off one material and
deposited on the other.…read more

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The bigger the charge on an isolated object, the higher the potential difference between the object
and the earth. If the potential difference becomes high enough, a spark may jump across the gap
between the object and any earthed conductor brought near it [a metal object is earthed by
connecting it to the ground].
Using Electrostatics
In a photocopier, a copying plate is given a charge. An image of the page to be copied is projected
onto the charged plate.…read more

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The symbols shown relate to their descriptions below. We use these symbols to make circuit
diagrams to show how components are connected to make a circuit.…read more

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The current through a diode can only flow in one direction ­ in the reverse direction, the resistance
is so high that the current is zero.
The resistance on an LDR (light-dependent resistor) decreases as the light falling on it gets brighter.
As the temperature of a thermistor, however, goes up ­ the resistance goes down.
The two graphs above show the current-potential difference graphs for a filament lamp (left) and a
diode (right).…read more

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Series circuit: the current of the bulbs will have the exact same
current flowing through them, e.g. 8 amps. If they all have the same
resistance, they will all share the same potential difference (e.g.…read more

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Appliances with a metal exterior must be earthed, appliances with plastic cases do not ­ they are
said to be "double insulated" and are connected to the mains supply using only a neutral wire and a
live wire.
There are also fuses fitted to the plugs. If a fault develops in an earthed appliance, a large current
will flow to earth, melting the fuse and disconnecting the supply.…read more

Comments

FutureMedic

Glad I could help! :)

lisa linsdell

Comprehensive notes for this AQA unit. Covers the whole of the unit.

Talia Lowton

thank you Lisa! Just downloaded these (biology, chemistry and physics) all ready for my holidays so I dont have to take so much with me, I love the layout, it's very easy to read and understand :)

MyLifeMyRulz

Thanks a lot. xD

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