F&I Foreign Policy

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  • F&I Foreign Policy
    • Granada War 1482-92
      • Economic Benefits
        • Granada controlled the Saharan gold trade
        • Emanated substantial wealth from silk industry
        • Provided base to take N. African provinces such as the taking of Oran & Bougie
          • These provided ivory, gold and slaves
          • Maintenance of Granada and N.Africa was done so at a loss
          • Expedition to take Djerba, off Tunisia, tragically failed
      • Religious Benefits
        • IP under Catholic rule for the first time in centuries
          • Reduced threat of Moorish cooperation with Ottomans
        • Given Catholic Monarchs title by Pope in 1494
          • Largely funded by the Pope through Cruzadas and Indulgences
            • 1484-92: 800m maravedis through Cruzada
        • Opportunity to expand Catholicism & suppress Islam
          • De Talavera, First Archbishop of Granada imposed a liberal policy
            • Reversed under the persistence of Archbishop of Toledo in 1499.
              • This led to Moorish distaste of Christianity
              • Poor education meant many were not genuine converts; increasing fears of fifth column
      • Political Benefits
        • Provided land for patronage
          • F&I had taken considerable amount of noble land through the 1480 Cortes of Toledo
          • In return, Granada provided a way to keep nobility content.
          • Over 50% of Granada lands were given to nobility
    • Conflict with French
      • Conquest of Navarre 1512
        • F takes advantage of internal conflict
      • Italy
        • Treaty of Barcelona 1493 gives Cerdagne & Roussillon to Spain to boost Italian efforts
        • 1495: King Ferrante of Naples is toppled by France
        • 1503: Spanish win against the French in Garigliano & Cerignola led by Cordoba
        • 1504: Naples becomes a part of the Aragonese Crown
      • Peace
        • Ferdinand's marriage to Germain de Foix in 1506 secured relations
    • Portugal
      • War of Succession 1475-79
        • Portuguese Prince Alfonso & Joanna vs F&I
        • The decisive Battle of Toro in 1476 practically won the war  on land
        • Portuguese naval dominance was left intact after the decisive victory at the Battle of Guinea 1478
        • Concluded with the Treaty of Alcacovas 1479
          • Gave Canary Islands to Spain
          • Portugal given fishing monopoly in W. Africa
      • Matrimonial Alliances
        • Eldest daughter Isabella married to Alfonso
          • Isabella marries Emmanuel I
            • Emmanuel I marries Maria after Isabella death in 1498
    • New World
      • 1492: Columbus expedition
      • Economic Benefits
        • Thought it would provide access to India & China through bypassing Ottomans
        • Cheap labour through the use of encomiendas
          • Slavery banned in 1500
            • Reaffirmed by Laws of Burgos in 1512
        • Expedition only cost 2m maravedis
        • Some precious metals found in 1509
      • Religious Benefits
        • 12 missionary priests sent in 2nd voyage in 1493 for conversions

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