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    • Types of Family Diversity
      • nuclear
      • extended
      • reconstituted
      • single parent
      • same sex family
      • beanpole
    • Increasing
      • Growing trend of voluntay childlessness
        • lack of social pressure and stigma
        • women enjoy careers and working lives
        • women enjoy high standards of living and varied leisure ativities
      • Rise in Singlehood
        • large number elderly widowed
        • growing number of people (either sex) choosing to live alone
        • Anthony Giddens said living alone would increase and become a valued option
      • Increase in young people still living with parents
        • houses too expensive to buy/rent
        • delay of marriage
        • don't want to commit to cohabitation
        • go to local unis and stay home to save costs
    • Research
      • Rapoport & Rapoport (1982) identified types of family diversity
        • 3) Social Class Diversity - differences on child rearing, norms and values
          • e..g education - private schools for upper class, middle class look for a good school and working class the local comprehensive
        • 2) Cultural Diversity - variations in lifestyle of families from different ethnic origins & religious beliefs
          • e.g. sex before marriage/cohabitation, Afro-Caribbean families 65% single parent families
        • 4) Life Cycle Diversity - depending on what stage in life cycle they are
        • 1) Oragnisational e.g. nuclear, extended etc.
        • 5) Geographical Diversity - some areas in the UK categorised by certain family types
      • Cheal (1993)
        • argues family hasundergone major change and is no longer predicatble - people nw have more choices
    • New Types of Family Diversity
      • Sexual Diversity
        • Weeks, Heaphy & Donovan (1999) increase in gay families,  see themselves as ‘chosen families’.
        • Roseneil (2005) development of chosen families to the breakdown of the ‘heteronorm’
          • a belief that all intimate relationships should be based on heterosexuality.
        • TV programmes such as Friends, Modern Family, Will and Grace show alternatives
        • Civil Partnerships Act 2004 & the Marriage Act 2014 has legitimised  gay & lesbian relationships.
      • Surrogate Motherhood
        • New reproductive technologies from 1978
        • Louise Brown was the first ‘test tube’ baby born through IVF
        • adds to the complexity of possible family types & has even led to a grandmother giving birth to her own grandchild.
      • Arranged Marriage
        • stereotypically young reluctant women forced by older relatives t marry someone she hardly knows
        • actually more negotiation and choice involved for the couple
        • still some communities who abide by fundamentalist religious practices & traditional cultural norms
          • known as forced marriages
    • Causes of Family Diversity
      • secularisation - less religious influences e.g. sex before marriage
      • easier to divorce due to legislation
      • lack of social stigma = more accepted family types
      • Allan & Crow (2001) - there is no longer an average family - more unpredictable course
        • rising divorce
        • rise in acceptance of cohabitation
        • rise in acceptance of single parent families
        • declining marriage rates
        • growth in reconstituted families


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