Fabric Construction

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  • Fabric Construction
    • Woven
      • Types of weave
        • Plain
          • The simplest and tightest weave (over and under)
          • Closer the yarns, dancer the fabrics
          • same on both sides - easiest to make
          • It is hard wearing and hs  smooth finish (good for printing on)
          • eg. Calico
        • Twill
          • Weft yarn goes over more than one warp yarn (2/4)
            • Creates a diagonal pattern on the surface of the fabric
            • Stronger and drapes better than plain weave
            • eg. Tweed or Tratan
        • Satin
          • Weft yarn floats over 4 or more yarns to give a real sheen to the fabric
            • Long weft yarns on the surface catch the light so stain weaves make shiny fabrics
              • However the floats can snag - its a delicate fabric
          • eg. Satin
        • Jacquard
          • Weaves have complex patterns
            • Such as; flowers, leaves, lettering etc.
        • Pile
          • Woven with a n extra layer of weft yarns that forms loops on the surface
          • eg. Velvet or Courduroy
      • In woven fabrics, yarns are interlaced at right angles to each other
        • The horizontal yarns are called the weft yarn
        • The vertical yarns are called the warp yarn
        • The bias is the diagonal
        • The selvedges the edge of the fabric which docent fray
      • Properties
        • Edges do not fray until cut but do fray easily when they are
        • Can be woven at different densities and have different weights
        • Strongest on the grain line and stretch at the bias
        • Stronger and firmer the closer the weave is
    • Kintted
      • A  knitted fabric is made of interlocking loops, using one or more yarns
        • These loops trap air, making knitted fabrics good insulators
      • There are  two types of knitted fabrics;
        • Weft Knit
          • The yarn runs across the fabric, making interlocking loops with he row of yarn beneath
            • They have v-shapes loops on the right side and horizontal ribs on the wrong side
              • If the yarn breaks it can unravel and form a ladder
          • These fabrics stretch and can loose their shape easily
          • They can be produced by hand or machine
          • Properties
            • High elasticity and stretch
            • Insulating
              • The interlocking loops trap air and retain heat
          • Eg. Single Jersy
            • Used for; T-shirts, sweaters, ribbed socks & jumpers, sports wear etc.
        • Warp Knit
          • The yarn loops in a vertical direction
          • Warp knitted fabrics can only be machine made
            • The production system is fast
            • The machine is complicated and therefore more expensive to produce
          • The fabric is elastic but can keep its shape
          • These fabrics are hard to unravel and are less likely to ladder so can be cut and sewn more easily than weft knit
          • Eg. Lock Knit
            • Used for; bed sheets, furnishing fabrics, velour, swimwear fabrics, lace, fleece fabrics etc.
    • Non-woven
      • Non-woven fabrics are made by either felting or bonding
      • Properties
        • Not very strong
        • Can be made...
          • in a range of weights
          • into moulded shapes
          • from recycled fabrics
          • to be soluble
          • to soften with heat and act like a glue
          • to be permeable
        • Do not fray
        • Can easily pile ( bible)
        • May be weaker when wet
        • They are cheep to produce
        • Will also take on some of the properties of the fibre used in the web
      • Felting
        • Wool felt is the most common and is produced by using short staple fibres from wool or other animal hairs
          • Wool is an ideal fibre because its surface has natural hooklike scales
            • Which when moisture, heat and vigorous movement are applied, interlock with each other
          • Felt is made by combining pressure, posture and heat to interlock a mat of fibres
            • The heat and damp conditions cause the fibres to curl up, and the scales locking together prevents the fires from straightening out again
          • Felt can be used for; carpet underly, craft material, hats, jewellery, snooker table coverings etc.
      • Bonded
        • These are webs of fibres half together by glue, stitches, needle-punching or heat
          • Dry laid
            • A web of fibres is laid in a drum and hot air is ejected to bond the fibres
          • Wet laid
            • A web of fibres is mixed with a solvent that softens the fibres and realises z glue-like substance that bonds the fibres together and then the web is laid out to dry
          • Direct spun
            • The fibres are spun onto a conveyer belt and guts are sprayed onto the fibres, which are then pressed to bond
              • If the fibres are thermoplastic (will change shape with heat) then the glue is not nee in this process
        • Bonded fabrics are used fr disposable products such as cloths, medical  masks and table linen
          • Can also be used for interfacings for strengthening and stiffening clothing
      • Laminated
        • Laminated fabrics are made by bonding two or more fabrics together
        • Many fabrics require extra insulation or protection - foam is bonded to provide this
        • Making a fabric breathable and waterproof may require lamination of a membrane
          • As in; Gortex and Sympatex

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