Fibres/Yarns/Fabrics/Components

  • Created by: Lily06
  • Created on: 24-05-18 17:01
All fabrics are made from...
...tiny hair like structures called fibres
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These fibres are: (2 types)
staple (short) fibres or filament (long) fibres
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What are the three groups of fibres?
Natural, Synthetic, Regenerated
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Where do Natural fibres come from?
animals eg: wool, silk, alpaca, angora, camel hair, cashmere, mohair and vicuna; or plants eg: cotton, linen, jute, hemp and ramie
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What are Synthetic fibres?
fibres which are man-made from the by-products of oil, including elastomeric, acrylic, aramid, modacrylic, polyamide, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Microfibres are extremely fine synthetic fibres, eg: polyester, nylon and Tactel
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What are Regenerated fibres made from?
a combination of chemicals and cellulose waste, eg: viscose, lyocell, acetate, cupro, modal and tencel
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What is a yarn?
individual fibres made twisted together so they are not as weak and can take on different properties
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How are yarns made?
by spinning and twisting fibres together
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What does the worsted spinning system produce?
a smooth yarn
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What does the woollen spinning system produce?
a more hairy yarn
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What are the two ways fibres can be spun?
S twist (anticlockwise) or Z twist (clockwise)
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What happens in more complex yarns?
they combine equal amounts of S twists and Z twists to prevent distortion
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What happens to the long lengths of yarn?
they are wound onto spools or cones
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What are the 8 types of yarn?
spun yarns, multi-filament yarns, monofilament yarns, assembled yarns, folded yarns, plied yarns, complex yarns and fancy yarns
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What are bulk yarns and what are they used for?
heavier, chunkier yarns used for hats, scarves and sweaters
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How are knitted fabrics made?
they are made from yarn in a series of interlocking loops
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What are the properties of knitted fabrics and why?
due to loops, knitted fabrics are elastic (stretchy) but further elasticity can be added with elastene, eg: Lycra; they are warm, but again this can be improved by a finishing process called napping/brushing giving it a fluffy surface (like fleeces)
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Describe WEFT knitted fabrics.
horizontal rows of knitted yarn; horizontal ribs on the wrong side; v shaped loops on the face (right side); interlocking loops above/below each row, holding the fabric together
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Give some examples of WEFT knitted fabrics.
Polyester fleece fabrics, single jersey (eg: t-shirts), double jersey (eg: sports shirts)
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Describe WARP knitted fabrics.
interlocking loops/chains that run vertically down the fabric; can only be machine made; less elastic and tend to be firmer fabric than weft knitted fabric, so they keep their shape well and don't usually ladder when cut
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Give some examples of WARP knitted fabrics.
lightweight fabrics such as nets and lace; heavy fabrics like terry towelling and velour
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Woven fabrics are constructed from...
...interlocking threads or yarn, and produced on a weaving loom
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Woven fabrics are made up of...
...weft yarns, running horizontally, and warp yarns, running vertically
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Give some properties of woven fabrics.
they fray easily when cut, they are strongest along the straight grain of the fabric, they lack elasticity (but elastene can be added to give more stretch) and are stronger and firmer the closer the weave is
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Due to the way its constructed, a woven fabric has...
a selvedge = an edge that won't fray, and a bias = a diagonal or cross grain
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Describe a plain weave, and give examples.
the simplest weave, creating an interlocking pattern, where the weft yarns pass over and under the warp yarns. Examples: polyester, cotton, calico
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Describe a twill weave, and give examples.
creates a diagonal pattern (bias), where the weft yarns pass over and under either 2 or 4 warp yarns. Examples: denim, gaberdine
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Describe a satin weave, and give examples.
creates a smooth, shiny fabric, where the weft yarns pass over and under 4-7 warp yarns, and is often used for furnishings. Example: damask
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Describe a Jacquard weave, and give examples.
creates a complex woven fabric, and is made on a specialist loom (a Jaquard loom) that is often computer controlled, produces high quality fabrics that are very expensive, and often have a pattern. Examples: rich furnishings and formal wear
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Describe a pile weave, and give examples.
creates a raised surface made up of upright loops. Examples: velvet, corduroy, terry towelling
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What are pile fabrics?
woven or knitted fabrics that have cut fibres or loops of yarn standing upright from the surface, which when tightly packed create a "plush" texture, eg: velvet, and they have a nap = the direction in which the loops/fibres naturally lie
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What are non-woven fabrics made from?
raw fibres (usually synthetic) rather than yarns
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Methods of making non-woven fabrics?
using chemicals to mat the fibres together, using heat to bond the fibres together, or stitching the fibres together in layers
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Properties of non-woven fabrics include...
...they have no grain, don't stretch or fray easily, are not as strong or flexible as knitted/woven fabrics, and are permeable
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How are fibres matted together in wool felts?
A web of fibres is laid on a belt, and treated with solution. The web is heated and then passed through a range of mechanical rollers.
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How are needle felts made?
Fibres are laid on top of each other, and then passed through a series of barbed needles. This process drags the fibres backwards and forwards and up and down, interlocking the fibres together.
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How are bonded fabrics made?
By laying fibres across each other randomly or specifically using specialised machinery.
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In bonded fabrics, how are the fibres bonded together to form webs?
using an adhesive to glue the fibres together, using a solvent to soften the fibres so they stick together, or by doing lines of stitching which is a cheap way pf producing fabrics
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What happens to the webs then?
They are layered and fused together, using heat, to create the final fabric.
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Describe rubber/latex.
Fine latex can be moulded or shaped into seamless clothing, eg: wetsuits
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Describe net.
A mesh based material formed by twisting two ends of yarn together and used for curtains and packaging.
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Describe lace.
Machine made lace is manufactured on a net base and used mainly for interior products, and special garments like wedding dresses
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Describe how metals can be used in fabric.
Steel, Copper and Aluminium can be made into very thin yarns and used in fabrics, eg: electronic "smart" fabrics
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When is glass used in textiles?
Glass fibres have a reflective surface but are very abrasive (hard-wearing) and are used in specialist textiles for industrial and architectural products, eg: fibreglass
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What is Tyvek?
a paper-like fabric, used for clothing
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How can ceramics be used in textiles?
They are combined with polyester fibres, and are waterproof, provide UV protection and can help to maintain body temperature, so are used for insulation and in specialist garments for extreme conditions
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How can the properties of a yarn or fabric be enhanced?
By combining different fibres (a blend/mixture)
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Why do textile manufacturers blend fibres?
To produce yarns and fibres with the combined properties of both
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What is an advantage of blending fibres?
The end product can be cheaper to make and sell.
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What are the five reasons a textile product will often have finishes applied?
to: protect the fabric/design features, change the feel of the fabric, improve resilience and durability, improve appearance of the product, add value to the product
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What are the three physical finishes?
Brushing, calendering, laminating
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Brushing: effect, done on?, product examples.
EFFECT: fabrics are passed through a series of wire rollers and the fabric is left soft/fluffy. CAN BE APPLIED TO: cotton, wool, polyester, polyamide. PRODUCTS: bedding and fleeces
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Calendering:effect, done on?, product examples.
EFFECT: fabrics are passed between heated rollers which gives the fabric a smooth finish. CAN BE APPLIED TO: cotton and wool. PRODUCTS: chintz fabric for furnishing.
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Laminating: effect, done on?, product examples.
EFFECT: layers of fabric are bonded together using heat/adhesive, producing layers of fabric with different properties. CAN BE APPLIED TO: cotton and polyester. PRODUCTS: table cloths, aprons, outdoor clothing
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What is biostoning?
It is when a cellulose enzyme acts on the fabric to produce a worn look and a softer feel, and can be applied to cotton (denim), Tencel and Lyocell, and applications include clothing, eg: jeans
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What is biopolishing?
It is when an enzyme acts on the fabric to add a sheen which softens it and reduces pilling, and can be applied to cotton and Tencel. Applications include leisure clothing
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What happens in mercerising?
the fabric is placed in a sodium hydroxide solution which makes it more shiny, absorbent and strong
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What is waterproofing? (or a water repellent finish)
a silicon based chemical is sprayed on the fabric providing a waterproof layer
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What is flame proofing?
chemicals are applied to the yarn or fabric which provides a protective layer that slows down the burning process
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What is an anti-static finish?
a chemical based product is applied to the fabric to stop the build up of electric charge
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What is an anti-felting finish?
an oxidative treatment is applied to the fabric which softens rough fibres to prevent matting and felting whilst retaining warmth
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What is bleaching?
a strong chemical is applied to the yarn or fabric to remove all natural colour (but can weaken the fabric)
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How are fabrics finished to give crease resistance?
a resin is applied to the fabric and then heat cured (set), and the layer of resin prevents creasing
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How are fabrics finished to give shrink resistance?
a resin based finish or chlorine based chemical treatment is applied to the fabric to stop the fabric from shrinking so it can be machine washed
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Describe spark resistance.
protects against spark discharge and is used in industrial settings
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Describe fire resistance.
fabrics can withstand certain fire conditions
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Describe cut/tear/ballistic resistance.
fabrics protect the user in industry or sporting events
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Describe abrasion resistance.
prevents wear and tear of the garment
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Why are components added?
to enhance or embellish, or to add functionality
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Give 8 examples of components.
dyes, inks, paints, elastics, threads, knitting yarns, fastenings, bindings, interfacings
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Why are elastics used in textiles?
to hold fabrics in place and to create flexible openings, or for embroidery and special effects
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Give some examples of fastenings.
buttons, zips hook and eye fasteners, press studs, poppers, toggles, parachute clips and hook and loop fastening (eg: velcro)
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Describe interfacings.
they are used to reinforce or add stability to fabrics, and are often applied using heat, so are an example of a fusible material
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Card 2

Front

These fibres are: (2 types)

Back

staple (short) fibres or filament (long) fibres

Card 3

Front

What are the three groups of fibres?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where do Natural fibres come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are Synthetic fibres?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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