External ethnic factors in differences in achievement: C.D

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  • Cultural deprivation
    • Intellectual and linguistic skills
      • Children from low-income, black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences. This means they have not been able to develop reasoning and problem  solving skills.
      • Bereiter and Englemann: language spoken by low-income black families is ungrammatical, disjointed, incapable of expressing abstract ideas.
      • Bowker: lack of standard english is a major barrier to progress to education and integration into wider society.
      • Swann Report: language is not a major factor in acheivement.
      • Gilborn: Indian pupils normally do very well despite not having English as their first language within the home.
    • Attitudes and values
      • Lack of motivation as a major cause in failure of many black children.
      • Black children are socialised into a subculture with a "live for today" attitude (fatalistic) that doesn't value education so they fail.
    • Family structures
      • Moyinhan: children of families who are headed by a lone mother are culturally deprived because their mother can't adequately socialise them as she has to struggle financially in the absence of a male bread-winner.
      • Father's absence means that boys lack a male role model in terms of achievement which leads to their failure.
        • Murray (New Right) agrees with this.
      • Cultural deprivation is a cycle as inadequately socialised  children from unstable families go on to fail at school and become inadequate parents themselves.
    • The difference between black and Asian pupils is the impact of colonialism of the two. The experience of slavery for the blacks was culturally devastating. Being transported and sold into slavery meant that they lost their language, religion and entire family system. By contrast, Asian family structures, languages and religions were not destroyed by colonial rule.
    • Asian Families
      • Lupton: adult authority in Asian families is similar to the model that operates in schools. Respectful behavior towards adults was expected from children. This had a knock-on effect in school, since parents were more likely to be supportive of school behavior policies.
    • White working class families
      • Sutton Trust (2004): 80% of 11 to 16 year olds of ethnic minorities aspired to go to university whereas 68% of white pupils.
    • Compensatory education, such as Operation Head Start, was to compensate chidlren for the cultural deficit they are said to suffer because of deprived backgrounds.
    • Criticisms of Cultural deprivation
      • Driver: C.D ignores positive effects of ethnicity on achievement.
        • Example: lone-parent mothers are good role models for their daughters of independent, hard-working women.
      • Compensatory education tries to impose white culture on black children when they already have a coherent culture of their own.
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