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Graph on pg 113
Analysis of graph:
This graph shows that Chinese
children are achieving more
good GCSE's than other
ethnicities. This may be due to
their culture.
However, throughout the
graph, females are getting
better grades than males.…read more

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Differences…read more

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Cultural Deprivation
· Cultural Deprivation theory sees the under- achievement of some ethnic groups as a result of
inadequate socialisation in the home. The explanation for this is:
· INTELLECTUAL & LINGUISTIC SKILLS- Many black, low income families lack the stimulation for
`proper language'. This means that they are behind in school as they aren't as linguistically
developed as others in their class and their reasoning and problem solving skills aren't as
developed. Bereiter and Engelmann believed that the language spoken by many of these black,
low income families is ungrammatical, disjointed and incapable of describing abstract ideas. There
has always been concern for people who's first language isn't English and they live in England.
But Mirza did a study and found that many Indian girls did very well despite not speaking English
as their first language.
· ATTITUDES & VALUES- CD theorists believe that many black children fail due to a lack of
motivation at home. Most children are brought up in a socially mainstream way, which includes
culture, being ambitious, being competitive and being willing to make sacrifices for later life. Whilst
many black children are brought up with a fatalistic view and to enjoy life now approach to life.
This view is an `anti- school' view and won't equip them for later life or success.
· FAMILY STRUCTURE & PARENTAL SUPPORT- Many CD theorists argue that failure is due to a
dysfunctional family structure. Pryce (1979) sees the under- achievement of black Caribbean is
due to family structure. He compared Asian and Black Caribbean pupils and found that Asian
pupils had a higher achievement level. He believes that this is due to Asians having a higher self-
worth and respect culture. By contrast, he argues that the black Caribbean culture is more
individual and therefore more likely to be targeted by racism. As a result, many black students
have low self- esteem and therefore under- achieve. He argues that black culture was lost through
slavery and they lost their language, culture etc. Whilst Asian culture wasn't lost/ destroyed
through colonial rule
· ASIAN FAMILIES- Driver and Ballard (1981) also argue that Asian family structure brings
educational benefits. Asian parents have a more positive attitude towards education and have
higher expectations of their child and as a result are more supportive of their child. But some
sociologists would say that Asian culture is very stressful due to the extreme pressure children are
put under, especially girls.…read more

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Criticisms of Cultural Deprivation
· Driver (1977)- Black Caribbean culture shows a
good, positive, strong role model for girls from
strong, independent mothers.
· Lawrence (1982)- Black children under- achieve
due to racism not low self- esteem.
· Keddie- They aren't culturally deprived, they are
culturally different. They under achieve due to
the ethnocentric, biased curriculum.…read more

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Material Deprivation and Class
· Material deprivation means a lack of physical necessities that are seen as essential/ normal for life
in today's society. In general, w. class families are more likely to face poverty and material
deprivation. MD theorists see educational failure as a result of substandard housing and low
income. Ethnic minorities are more likely to face these problems.
· Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are 3x more likely than whites to be in the poorest 5th of the
· Unemployment is 3x higher for African, Pakistani and Bangladeshi people than for whites
· 15% of ethnic minority households live in overcrowded conditions compared to 2% of whites
· These inequalities are reflected in how many different ethnic groups are entitled to free- school
meals. Bangladeshi pupils have to highest amount of pupils in free- school meals and White
British have the lowest. The material deprivation explanation argues that these class differences
explain why Bangladeshi and Pakistani pupils tend to do worse than Indian/ White pupils.
· The Swann Report (1985) estimated that social class accounts for at least 50% of difference in
achievement between ethnic groups.
· However, Mirza and Gillborn argue that social class factors don't override the influence of
ethnicity. When we compare pupils of the same social class but different ethnicity, we still find
differences in achievement. This is particularly the case with for black children, since even middle-
class black pupils do comparatively poorer at GCSE.…read more

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