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Differences in Educational Achievement


In recent years, girls have outperformed boys in most subjects with 10% more girls receiving
5 A*-C grades than boys.


Impact of Feminism

1970 Equal Pay Act has made it easier for women to be financially independent as
they receive equal pay to…

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Feminisation of education

Schools have begun to reward feminine traits such as attentiveness and dismiss
masculine traits such as competitiveness and leadership. Therefore, girls are in the
teachers favour.
Coursework based subjects introduced. It is argued that girls do better in
coursework than boys

Teacher Interaction

Frank =…

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A02 Gillborn and Mirza = Indian pupils that have English as an additional language is
not a barrier to success as they are statistically some of the higher achievers.

Attitudes and Values of the family can also be a contributing factor.
Pilkington = African Caribbean's may have family cultures that…

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Ethnocentric Curriculum

Subjects such as R.E., English Literature and History have been accused of being
ethnocentric as they focus on white British culture i.e. does not include the history of
black people and foreign languages taught in schools are primarily European.


Gillborn = Marketisation has given schools greater scope…

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Tanner = costs of transport, uniforms, books, computers, internet, sports/music/art
equipment places a heavy burden on w/c.

Cultural Capital

Bourdieu = uses the concept of cultural capital (knowledge, attitudes, values,
language and ability) to explain why m/c students are more successful/more
W/c parents lack the cultural capital necessary for…

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m/c are seen as more desirable `recruits' as they are perceived to achieve better
exam results ­ therefore, they get into better schools ­ better grades etc
Gillborn and Youdell = educational triage ­ schools channel most of their efforts
into those students who are likely to get 5 GCSE's…


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