External factors and ethnic differences in achievement

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  • External factors and ethnic differences in achievement
    • Cultural deprivation
      • Intellectual and linguistic skills
        • Lack of is a major cause of underachievement for many minority children.
          • Poorly equipped for school as unable to develop reasoning and problem solving skills.
        • Berieter and Engelmann - language spoken by low income black American families inadequate for educational success.
          • Families who don't speak English at home may be held back. However not a major factor.
      • Family structure and parental support
        • Cultural deprivation theorists - failure to socialise children adequately is result of dysfunctional family structure.
          • Daniel Moynihan (1965) - many black families headed by lone mother so children deprived of adequate care as she struggles financially.
            • Fathers absence means boys lack role model of male achievement.
          • New Right - Charles Murray (1984)high rate lone parenthood and lack of male role models lead to underachievement.
          • Ken Pryce (1979) - Asians are higher achievers as culture more resistant to racism and gives greater sense of self-worth/ Black Caribbean culture is less cohesive and resistant to racism. As a result many have low self-esteem and underachieve.
            • Experience of slavery meant that they lost their language, religion and family system. By contrast, Asian family structures, languages and religion were not destroyed by colonial rule.
      • Sewell
        • Fathers, gangs and culture - Lack of fatherly nurturing or 'tough love'. Results in black boys finding it hard to overcome emotional and behavioural difficulties of adolescence.
          • black students do worse than differences. One group Asian due to cultural nurtured by MTV/gangs and other educational hours.
            • Gillborn (2008) argues not peer pressure but institutional racism within educational system produces failure. .
          • many black boys feel pressured by other boys, Speaking English and doing well was seen as 'selling out' to white establishment.
        • Asian families Indian and Chinese have benefit from supportive families and place high value on education.
          • Ruth Lupton (2004) - adult authority in Asian families similar to model in schools. Respectful behaviour was expected from children.
        • White - working families -   often underachieve. Ethnic minority want to go to uni more. May be due to lack of parental support.
          • Lupton - 4 working-class pupils - found teachers reported poorer levels of behaviour in white pupils.
          • Gillian Evans (2006) street culture - brutal so people learn to withstand intimidation.
        • compensatory education - aims to compensate children for cultural deficit suffer due to deprived backgrounds.
      • Attitudes and values
        • Cultural deprivation theorists - lack of motivation is a major cause of failure of many black children.
          • Most children are socialised into the mainstream culture, which instils ambition, competitiveness and willingness to make sacrifices to reach goals.
            • Equips them for success in education.
        • Most children are socialised into the mainstream culture, which instils ambition, competitiveness and willingness to make sacrifices to reach goals.
          • Equips them for success in education.
        • Cultural deprivation theorists argue some black children socialised into subculture that instils fatalistic attitude that does not value education and leaves them unequipped for success.
      • Criticisms
        • Lawrence (1982) - black pupils under-achieve because of racism.
        • Driver (1977) - criticises cultural deprivation theory for ignoring positive effects of ethnicity on achievement.
          • Shows black Caribbean family not dysfunctional. Provides girls with positive role models so tend to be successful.
        • Multicultural education - policy recognises and values minority cultures and includes in curriculum.
        • anti-racist education - policy challenges prejudice and discrimination that exists in schools and wider society.
    • Material deprivation and class
      • lack of necessities essential in normal life.
      • Educational failure due to lack of standard housing and low income
        • almost half ethnic minority children live in low income houses, against one quarter white people.
        • ethnic minorities almost twice likely to be unemployed.
        • ethnic minority households 3x likely to be homeless
        • half Bangladeshi and Pakistani workers earn under £7 hour
      • Reasons why ethnic minorities at greater risk of material deprivation
        • lack of language skills - can't get jobs
        • purdah in muslim households - prevents women from working outside home
        • asylum seekers may not be able to take work
        • live in economically depressed areas
        • racial discrimination
      • material deprivation and social factors do not completely override influence of ethnicity.
        • Moodood (2004) children from low income families generally did less well. Effects of low income much less for other ethnic groups than whire.
    • Racism in wider society
      • Mason (2000) discrimination continuing and persistent feature
      • Rex (1986) leads to social exclusion - worsens poverty faced.
      • Employment - direct and deliberate discrimination
        • Wood et al (2010) sent applications to vacancies. one in 16 ethnic minority application offered interview
        • Explains why ethnic minorities likely to face unemployment.
  • Driver (1977) - criticises cultural deprivation theory for ignoring positive effects of ethnicity on achievement.
    • Shows black Caribbean family not dysfunctional. Provides girls with positive role models so tend to be successful.

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