Evolution: introduction

  • Created by: megknox
  • Created on: 03-01-20 15:38
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  • Evolution
    • Primeval Soup
      • random combination of molecules, nearly all trivial but ONE could REPLICATE itself
        • Replicator: not always perfect, sometimes produces slightly different versions
          • Replicators COMPETE for resources so accumulated changes, e.g. shells, to help. Humans are survival machines used by replicators to survive
    • Gene
      • a unit of evolution, modern version of the replicator. Passed on to next generation. GENES ARE LONG LASTING
    • Fast Evolution
      • when populations are large, selection pressure is strong
    • Slow Evolution
      • example of Coelacanth (fish) which have been the same for 150m years
    • Evolutionary Trade-off
      • organisms cant invest in everything, they invest in one trait or another
      • a trade-off situation is where to gain an advantage, you must pay a price
      • example: Large brains, use up lots of energy, make childbirth difficult, easily damaged
    • Genetics
      • Genotype: genetic material, combination of alleles inherited
      • Phenotype: observable characteristics which interact with environment
      • Chromosome: genes are located on chromosomes, occur in matches pairs, humans = 23 pairs
      • Allele: different forms of the same gene
      • Epigenetics
        • mechanisms which influence the expression of genes
        • DNA Methylation
        • Histone Remodelling
    • Cell Division
      • MEIOSIS
        • Produces gametes
      • MITOSIS
        • all cell division in the body
        • DNA unravels, splits and then the bases are attracted to their pair (AT GC)
        • Mistake in copy: mutation
    • Mutations
      • Chromosome Mutations: change in chromosome number or structure
      • Single-gene mutations: change in DNA structure within a particular gene


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