Ethnic inequality revision

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  • Ethnic inequality
    • Functionalist
      • Argue a stable society is based on shared norms and values
      • When migrants come to a country they will eventually be assimilated and inequalities will lessen
      • Patterson 19650 espoused a similar view, adding that any racism from the dominant group was a result of ignorance and confusion, it was not deliberate and would eventually go
      • EVALUATION
        • Soloms and Back 1994- argue assimilation does not lead to a decline in inequalities
        • Hall 1978- argued the immigrant host model reinforced racism and inequalities because it defined EMGS as the problem and ignored structural inequalities
        • Functionalism fails to acknowledge that minority ethnic groups may wish to retain their own cultures and not be assimilated
    • Marxist
      • Argue class is the most significant factor in explaining ethnic inequalities
      • Westergaard and Resler 1976 argue inequalities faced by members of minority of ethnic groups are the same as the inequalities suffered by the white working class
      • Castles and Kosack 1973- argue racial prejudice enables the dominant class to divide those who have the same class interests
      • EVALUATION
        • Solomos and Back 1994- argue traditional Marxism is inadequate in explaining contemporary issues of inequalities and power
        • There is no unifed working class that opposes the capitalist class
    • Neo-Marxist explanations
      • argue the traditional Marxist view is oudated
      • Argue traditional Marxist is too deterministic
      • Tradtional Marxism does not take into account the racism experienced by minority ethnic groups
      • Miles 1989- argue the division between the ruling class and the working class is fundamental in a capitalist society, but racist ideology plays an important part in determining the position of minority ethnic groups within classes
      • Miles 1989- classes are racialized
    • Weberian
      • Argue racial and ethnic inequalities are linked to economics, status and power are also iimportant
      • Parkin 1970 argued class and status are equally important
        • The middle classes practise social closure to keey out people from minority ethnic backgrounds
      • Rex and Tomilnson- argue there is a racialized underlcass. Argue the marginalized position of many black and Asian people in the UK can be understood in terms of an underclass
        • An underclass occupies a disadvantaged position in areas such as employment, housing, education and power to make decisions
      • Barron and Norris- argue there is a dual labour market
        • Primary
        • Secondary
      • EVALUATION
        • Views are similar to the neo-Marxist view in terms of racialized class fractions
        • New Right theorists, Murrary and Marsland argue many EMGs do not attempt to engage with the labour market

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