Childhood - Revision


March Of Progress View

Over past few centuries the position of children in western societes has been steadily improvingm this is due to a number of factor, including:

  • parents can now afford to provide for their childrens needs e.g By their 21st b-day they willl have cost their parents £186,000 (2007)
  • Governemnt also spends around £63 billion on children (2007)
  • Better healthcare & higher standard of living have ead to children having a better chance of survival. In 1900, infant mortality was 154 out of 1,000 live births, today it is 5/ 1,000. 
  • Smaller family sizes, gone from 5.7 births from one woman(1860s), to around 1.84 (2006)
  • Children no longer "seen and not heard" now focal point of the family

2 Criticisms of March of Progress view

  • Inequalities aong children in terms of the oppurtunuties & risks they face:many today remain unprotected & badly cared for
  • Inequalities between children & adults, greater than ever: children today expereice greater control, oppression & dependancy, not greater care & protection

Factors Causing inequalities between adults & children

  • Neglect & Abuse -control over children can be extreme: physicial, emotional, sexual abuse. 2013, 43,000 childen subjet to protections due to risk of harm, usually by their parents. Humphrey & Thiara(2002) 1/4 of women left their study left their abusing parents bc they feared for their childrens lives
  • Control over Body - they control how children sit, walk, hold cutlery, have their hair, piercings & interests thave have & their sexual exploitation
  • Control over Resources - children restricted in ability to earn money, economicailly dependant on parents. Law enforced compulsory schooling & restrict work. Child benefits go to adults & pocket money an be restricted

Factor among Children causing inequalities

  • Nationality - 90% worlds low-birth-weight babies come from LEDCs
  • Gender - Hillman(1993) & Bonke(1994). Hillman says boys re more liekly to cycle, use buse & go out alone. Bonke says girs do more domestic labour, especially with singe parent families
  • Ethnicity - Brannen & Bhatti. Brannen studied 15/16yr olds found asain parents were more strict with girls. Bhatti found that idea od 'IZZAT'(family honour) resricts beaious esp girls 
  • Class - Woodroofe(1993) & Howard(2001) Poor mothers have low-weight babies impacting their physical & interllectual development. Kids rom manual work were 3x more likely to be hyperctive kids…


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