Enzymes, Respiration and Exercise

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  • Enzymes, Respiration and Exercise
    • Respiration
      • The process of releasing energy from glucose, which goes on in every cell
      • Involves many reactions all of which are catalysed by enzymes
      • Aerobic Respiration
        • Using oxygen
        • Plants and Animals
        • Glucose+Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide
        • The energy released is used...
          • To build up larger molecules from smaller ones
          • In animals to allow muscles to contract
          • In mammals and birds- body temperature steady
          • In plants to build sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids- built up into proteins
    • Aerobic Respiration
      • Using oxygen
      • Plants and Animals
      • Glucose+Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide
      • The energy released is used...
        • To build up larger molecules from smaller ones
        • In animals to allow muscles to contract
        • In mammals and birds- body temperature steady
        • In plants to build sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids- built up into proteins
    • Exercise
      • Increase in muscle activity requires more glucose and oxygen to the muscle cells
      • Physical Activity...
        • increases breatthing rate  nd makes you breathe more deeply to meet the demand for extra oxygn
        • increases the speed at which the heart pumps
      • Some glucose from food is stored as glycogen
        • Mainly stored in th liver, but each muscle has its own store
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • When body can't supply enough oxygen to your muscles
      • Without oxygen
      • glucose -> energy+lactic acid
      • Lactic acid- builds up in muscles which causes muscle fatigue and therefore stop contracting efficiently, but you can keep using your muscles for longer
    • Oxygen Debt
      • "Repay" oxygen that you didn't get in time- lungs, heart and blood  couldn't keep up with the demand earlier on
      • Blood flows through your muscles to remove the lactic acid by oxidising it

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