Enzymes

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  • Enzymes
    • Activity
      • Speed up metabolism
        • Speed up rate of a chemical reaction
      • Speed up rate of a chemical reaction
      • Lower energy required for reaction to take place
        • Remain unchanged after reaction
        • Can carry out same reaction many times
          • Remain unchanged after reaction
        • Catalyse reactions within or outside cells
      • Factors Affecting
        • pH
          • Optimum
            • Work best
          • Higher
            • Denatured
          • Lower
            • Denatured
        • Temperature
          • Optimum
            • Work best
          • Higher
            • Shape of active site altered
            • Denatured
              • Shape of active site altered
          • Lower
            • Work slower
        • Inhibitors
          • Competitive
            • Compete with substrate for active site
          • Non-competitive
            • Attach to area other than active site
            • Shape of active site changed
              • Attach to area other than active site
            • Substrate molecule no longer fits onto active site
              • Shape of active site changed
            • Slow/stop enzyme activity
          • Substrate concentration
            • Increase
              • Increases until a point where it levels off
                • All enzyme active sites reacting with substrate
                • Enzymes working at fastest rate possible
                  • All enzyme active sites reacting with substrate
          • Enzyme concentration
            • Increase
              • Increases rate of reaction
                • More active sites available
          • Co-enzymes
            • Activate enzymes
            • Examples
              • Vitamins
              • Minerals

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