1.7 - Cellular Respiration


Cellular Respiration

Higher Human Biology 1.7

Cellular respiration is a series of metabolic pathways that brings about the release of energy and the regeneration of high energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

ATP is built up/regenerated from ADP and inorganic phosphate using the energy released from respiration. ATP is used to transfer the energy to cellular processes which require energy. The energy held in ATP is released when it is broken down into ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Phosphorylation is an enzyme controlled process by which a phosphate group is added to a molecule. 

There are three stages of aerobic respiration:

1. Glycolysis

2. Citric acid cycle

3. Electron transport chain

Glycolysis is the conversion of glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules with a net gain of 2ATP. This happens through a series of enzyme controlled reactions and occurs in the cytoplasm. It has two stages:

    • energy investment stage
    • energy payoff stage

The energy investment stage involves the investment of 2ATP. The job of these ATP is to provide phosphate for the phosphorylation of glucose and intermediates.

The energy payoff stage gives a yield of 4ATP. Dehydrogenase enzymes remove hydrogen ions and…


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