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  • Enzymes
    • Living cells carry out vast range of chemical reactions
      • energy required for chemical reactions to proceed
        • called activation energy
          • often takes form of heat energy
          • reaction only proceeds if reactants are raised to high temperature
            • living cells killed by high temperatures
    • Biological Catalysts
      • catalyst is a substance that increases rate of reaction
      • enzymes lower rate of reaction by lowering activation energy
    • Without enzymes the temp in living cells would be too low to support life
      • 37 degrees - body temp
    • all metabolic reaction in living organisms catalysed by enzymes
      • intracellular or extracellular
        • intracellular = inside cell
        • extracellular = outside cell
      • all chemical reactions in body = metabolism
    • Mechanisms of Enzyme Action
      • enzymes are globular protein molecules
        • each enzyme & active site have specific tertiary structure & shape
      • enzymes usually only work on 1 type of substance
        • substrate
      • substrate's molecular shape is complementary to enzyme's active site
      • enzyme combines reversibly with substrate to form e-s complex


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