English theories

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  • English Theories
    • Gender
      • Julia Stanely
        • 220 terms for promiscuous female
        • 20 for males
      • Lakoff
        • Deficit approach
          • Stereotypes of women
            • Women use...
              • Hedges
              • Use super polite forms
              • Tag questions
              • Indirect commands
              • Speak less
              • Apologies more
              • Avoid coarse language
              • Lack a sense of humour
      • Tannen
        • Difference approach
          • Men
            • Status
            • Independance
            • Advice
            • Information
            • Orders
            • Compromise
          • Women
            • Support
            • Intimacy
            • Understanding
            • Feelings
            • Proposals
            • Conflict
      • Coates
        • Women gossip
      • Jesperson
        • Women talk a lot, small vocab but more fluent
      • Fishman
        • Women
          • Ask more questions
        • Men
          • Minimal responses
      • Jane Pilkinton
        • Women are more collaborative
      • Zimmerman and West
        • 96% of interruptions are made by men
      • Kramer
        • men use insults as a way of expressing solidarity
      • Gomm
      • Kuiper
      • De Klerk and Hughes
        • Boys have the most taboo language
          • For a cheating female
      • Holmes
        • Women
          • Cooperative style
            • Tag questions
            • Hedges
            • Fillers
        • Competitive style
      • Dale Spender
        • Differences in conversational styles
          • Disadvantage women
      • Deborah Cameron
        • Miscommunication between men and women
      • Muriel Schultz
    • Social variaties
      • Milroy
        • Open network
          • Everyone knows each other
        • Closed network
          • Not everyone knows each other
      • Howard Giles
        • Communication Accommodation Theory
          • Convergence/Divergence
      • ComRes Survey
        • RP is more trustworthy
        • Regional accents are more friendly
      • Trudgill
        • 1974
          • Norwich study
            • Class is more of a determiner
              • Of non-standard usage than gender
                • Women are more likely to use RP
      • Cheshire
        • Study on non standard forms
          • Peer groups
            • Approved of criminal activities
              • Greater use of non standard forms
                • Boys more so
              • Those who disproved use less
      • Kerswill
        • Dialect levelling
          • Speech is becoming more similar
            • local varieties lose distinctive regional features
              • Reducing language diversity
      • Ursula Clark
      • Labov
        • New York Study
          • How often (R) sounded
            • Varied with formality and social class
      • Beattie
      • Penelope Eckert
        • Language isn't just based on gender
    • Politeness
      • Brown and levinson
        • Untitled
        • Negative and positive face
    • Spoken Language
      • Grice
        • Grice's Maxims
          • Maxim of quality
          • Maxim of quantity
          • Maxim of relevance
          • Maxim of manner
      • Labov
        • Story telling
          • 1) Abstract
            • How does it begin?
          • 2) Orientation
            • Who, when and where?
          • 3) Action
            • What happened?
          • 4) Resolution
            • What finally happened?
          • 5) Evaluation
            • So what?
          • 6) Coda
            • What does it all mean?
    • Power
      • Fairclough
        • Synthetic Personalisation
    • Class
      • Joy Fowler

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