Language and Region


Howard Giles (1973)

Accommodation Theory

  • Speakers change their language to resemble that of their listener
  • Convergence
  • Divergence
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William Labov (1963)

Martha's Vineyard study

  • East Coast of America
  • Focused on realisations of the diphthongs [aw] and [ay] (as in mouse and mice)
  • He interviewd a number of speakers drawn from different ages and ethnic groups
  • In younger speakers, a movement from the pronunciation associated with the standard New England norms was happening
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Peter Trudgill (1974)

Norwich Study

  • -ing dropping
  • Class has more of a determiner of non-standard usage than gender, although women do tend to speak more over-prestige than men
  • If you drop your '-ing's then you are more likely to be working class
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David Rosewarne (1984)

Estuary English

  • Newly observed variety of English pronunciation
  • Recieved Pronunciation (RP) is the standard 'correct' way of speaking English but it is being replaced by Estuary English
  • Estuary English is a variety of modified regional speech, it is a mixture of non-regional and local south-eastern English pronunciation and intonation.
  • Glottal stops
  • /h/ dropping
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Pamela Fishman (1992)

  • English is less well loved but more used because it has econo-technical superiority
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