physics- power stations mindmap 2017

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  • Created by: Tasha24_x
  • Created on: 11-01-18 18:03
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  • energy resources
    • solar power station
      • there we almost 2000 wind turbines currently operating in the uk supplying enough electricity to power over a million homes
      • this was only about 1.5% of the uk supply
        • almost 600 more were under construction which would raise the supply to that required by 2 million homes
      • kinetic(wind)--> kinetic(turbine) --> electric
      • the amount of sunlight received by he earth each day is about 6000 times all the energy usuage of mankind in that time
      • there are 2 ways we can use the energy from the sun
        • thermal (hea)- solar thermal
        • radiation (light)- photovoltaic
      • some older solar panels that you see are solar thermal they us the thermal energy rm the sun to provide warmer water.
      • photovoltaic material can absorb radiation and transform itdirectly into electricity
      • they work on cloudy days
      • if you generate too much energy - store it in batteries in your house or - sell it back to the national grid
    • methane fired power station
      • methan fired power stations supply about 35% of UK electricity
    • wave power station
      • can be in-shore and off-shore
      • the only wave power station is in Islay in Scotland
        • generating enough electricity for about 300 homes
      • kinetic(water)--> kinetic(air)-->kinetic(turbine)--> electric
      • the roughest seas occurred in winter wind
    • coal fired power station
      • they supply about 35% of uk electricity.
      • they have a start up time of a couple days but then usually work 24/7
      • since 1980s most uk coal mines have been closed because methane was cheaper
        • the last underground coal mine in the uk was closed in 2015
          • over 45 years ago almost every house in the uk was heated by coal fires
    • geothermal power station
      • heat from the ground. there are ground source heat pumps and geothermal power stations
      • ground source heat pumps are small  scale devices for households
      • energy is transferred from a very large ground area into a much smaller house giving a significant temperature rise.
        • the heat exchanger requires less energy than a conventional heating system
      • large scale devices
      • they are only viable in certain areas of the world that are geologically active
      • thermal--> kinetic (steam)--> kinetic(turbine)--> electric
    • peat fired power station
      • Ireland does not have methane, coal or oil
      • peat only has about 1/4 of the chemical energy as the same amount of coal
      • combusting fossil fuels in power stations generates about 70% the electricity in the UK
        • we combust them because they are relatively cheap and contain large amounts of chemical energy that is easily transformed
    • tidal power station
      • need a step sided river estuary with a high tidal range
        • river estuaries are usually near centres of population and industry
      • gravitational potential --> kinetic (water)--> kinetic (turbine)--> electric
    • biomass power station
      • uses plant materials as fuels
        • normall trees
      • can be any plant materials that can be combusted
        • eg- straw
      • Untilants are carbon neutraltled
    • nuclear power station
      • they generate about 20% of the electricity in the UK
      • there is a long start up time of several days, they usually work 24/7
      • the nuclear fuel is either uranium or plutonium
        • it is imported and non-renweable
        • although referred to as a fuel it is not combusted
      • a process called nuclear fission releases energy from the "fuel"
      • at the end of their workin lives, nuclear power stations are decommissioned
        • this means they are dismantled and the remaining nuclear fuel and nuclear waste is removed
    • hydroelectric power station
      • they need steep sided river valley which are often far from centres of population
      • only provides about 2% of the UKs electricity
      • thy produce no greenhouse gas emissions
      • gravitational potential --> kinetic(water)--> kinetic (turbine) --> electric.
      • short start up time
        • they are switched on at times of peak demand
      • at low demand, electrical energy is used to pump the water back up to the higher reserves
    • oil fired power station
      • many were built in the 1970s when oil was cheap but a soaring oil price meant that they were hardly used and are now being decommisioned
      • there are 20 years of reserves left in the uk
        • after that we will have to import oil
      • oil is used in many forms of transport
        • cars, petrol
        • lorries and trains, diesel
        • aeroplanes, kerosene
        • ships, fuel oil
          • combustion of these different fractions of oil leads to CO3 emissions
            • as well as many other airborne pollutions!!
      • oil is used in the petrochemical industry making a vast array of different polymers

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