Unit 4: Energy flow and nutrient cycles

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  • ENERGY FLOW AND NUTRIENT CYCLES
    • Total energy available = 100%
      • 60% not taken in: wrong wavelength, roots/bones or indigestible.
      • 40% gross productivity
        • 10% net productivity: available to next trophic level (gross productivity - respiratory loss)
        • 30% respiratory loss
    • Pyramid diagrams
      • Pyramid of numbers: number of organisms in each trophic level
      • Pyramid of biomass: smount of biomass in each trophic level
      • Pyramid of energy: amount of energy available in each trophic level
    • Intensive Farming Practices
      • Kill pest species
        • Chemical pesticides
        • Biological agents
        • Integrated system
      • Fertilisers
        • Natural - organic matter (manure or sewage sludge)
        • Artificial - inorganic matter (pure chemicals e.g. ammonium nitrate)
      • Rear livestock intensively
        • Warm, indoor pens with restricted movement
        • High energy feed
    • The carbon cycle
      • Combustion
      • Photosynthe-sis
      • Decompositio-n
      • Respiration
    • The nitrogen cycle
      • Nitrification
      • Ammonificati-on
      • Denitrification
      • Nitrogen fixation

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