Encoding

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  • Encoding
    • STM
      • info enters in original form into the sensory store
        • three main types of encoding used in memory
          • acoustic coding (sound)
          • visual (appearance)
          • semantic (meaning)
      • encoding in STM is mainly acoustic
        • Conrad 1964
        • laboratory experiment
          • participants shown random sequence of six constants
          • one group given acoustically simiar letters
            • B,G,C,T,D,V
          • other group given letters that were acoustically dissimilar
            • F, J, X, M, S R
          • immediately after participants were asked to recall as many letters as possible in the correct order
          • participants found it difficult to recall words that were similar
            • we convert visual info into acoustic info in STM
              • this makes it difficult to distinguish between words that are accoustcally similar
          • evaluation
            • lacks mundane realism, can't be related to real life
            • participants included students, doesn't represent the whole population
    • LTM and STM
      • encoding in LTM is semantic
      • laboratory experiment
        • Baddeley 1966
        • one group
          • first list acoustic similar words
            • mad, map, mat, cat, cap, cad
          • acoustically dissimilar
            • pen, cow, pit, sup, day
          • asked to recall immediately
        • second group
          • semantically dissimilar
            • foul, thin, late, safe, strong
          • semantically similar
            • tall, high, broad, wide , big
          • given ten words and participants were prevented from rehearsal with a distracter task
          • tested after 20 mins
        • in STM participants remembered acoustically similar worse, in LTM semantic words were remembered worse
        • lacks mundane realism
    • both independent measures designs
  • second group
    • semantically dissimilar
      • foul, thin, late, safe, strong
    • semantically similar
      • tall, high, broad, wide , big
    • given ten words and participants were prevented from rehearsal with a distracter task
    • tested after 20 mins

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