Effects of smoking

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • EFFECTS OF SMOKING
    • ON GAS EXCHANGE SYSTEM
      • TAR
        • settles on lining of airways and alveoli
          • increases diffusion distance
          • chemicals can cause allergic reaction
            • causes smooth muscle to contract
              • lumen gets smaller, less airflow to alveoli
          • destroys cilia
            • unable to move mucus
          • stimulates goblet cells to enlarge and produce more mucus
            • bacteria and virus in trapped mucus multiply and block bronchioles
              • unable to move mucus
              • lungs more susceptible to infection
                • likely to catch influenza or pneumonia
              • Smoker's cough
                • irritation of airways by mucus and blockage of air to alveoli leads to constant coughing.
                  • lining of airways and alveoli damge
                    • eventually replaced by scar tissue- thicker and less flexible
                  • smooth muscle thickens
                    • reduces lumen of airway
                      • eventually replaced by scar tissue- thicker and less flexible
                      • flow of air permanently restricted
              • frequent infections cause inflammation of linings, and damage of epithelium
                • attracts white blood cells which release enzymes to digest parts of lining
                  • elastase damages elastic tissue
                    • alveoli do not recoil during exhalation to push air out
                      • bronchioles collapse trapping air in alveoli, causing them to burst
              • CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
                • frequent infections cause inflammation of linings, and damage of epithelium
                  • attracts white blood cells which release enzymes to digest parts of lining
                    • elastase damages elastic tissue
                      • alveoli do not recoil during exhalation to push air out
                        • bronchioles collapse trapping air in alveoli, causing them to burst
                • CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
                  • EMPHYSEMA
                    • combination of diseases including CB, EMPHY, and asthma
          • contains carcinogens
            • LUNG CANCER
      • ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
        • NICOTINE
          • is addictive
            • smoker becomes dependent on it
          • mimics action of neurotransmitter
            • nervous system more sensitive
              • smoker more alert
          • releases adrenaline
            • increases heart and breathing rate
            • constricts arterioles
              • raises blood pressure
              • reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery to extremities
                • may need amputation
          • makes platelets sticky
            • clot THROMBUS
              • may break free and block a narrow artery
                • stroke
        • CARBON MONOXIDE
          • combines with haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin
            • reduces oxygen-carrying capactiy
              • exercise leaves short of breath
              • increases heart rate
          • damages lining of arteries (endothelium)
            • high blood pressure adds to damage
              • damage repaired by WBCs
                • encourage growth of smooth muscle and deposition of fatty substances
                  • atheromas deposition in artery walls- atherosclerosis
                    • build up may lead to lining eventually breaking
                      • forms plaque
                        • artery wall rougher and less flexible
                        • reduces size of lumen and reduces blood flow
                          • artery under too much pressure
                            • bursts -haemorrhage
                              • stroke
                          • reduced blood flow to heart muscles- less O2
                            • leads to CHD
                              • angina
                              • heart attack or myocardial infarction
                              • heart failure
                        • blood cannot flow smoothly
                          • RBC may stick to fatty deposits
                            • clot THROMBUS
                              • may break free and block a narrow artery
      • LONG TERM

      Comments

      No comments have yet been made

      Similar Biology resources:

      See all Biology resources »See all Health, illness and disease resources »