Effects of early experiences

  • Created by: hmarks62
  • Created on: 12-02-15 14:20
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  • Effects of early experiences
    • Adolescence: Parent-child relationships
      • Adolescence marks critical developments for example an adolescent's primary social network support commonly becomes their friends rather than their family, and most 16 year olds have experienced a romantic relationship
        • Madsen: Moderate/low dating frequency predicted higher quality young adult relationships, supporting the suggestion that adolescent relationships are necessary for functional adult relationships
          • Heavy dating actually predicted lower quality young adult relationships, showing the previous suggestions are simplistic
      • Adolescents compare their current relationships to their relationships with their parents. They may conclude that one or both parents do not meet their attachment needs, so other relationships might meet these needs better
      • Psychodynamic perspective suggests that until adolescence children think parents are omnipotent. They must accept that they might differ from their parents relationships in the way they and their partner behave. If they can differentiate they will have successful adult relationships
      • Much of the research lacks in validity e.g. culture. The vast majority was completed in US schools, so findings cannot be generalised
    • Childhood: Peer interactions
      • Qulater  & Munn (2005): Children also learn from their experiences with other children. They may have experiences with others that they internalise, which partly determines their own sense of value
      • Nangle et al (2003): Children's friendships are training grounds for important adult relationships.Close friendships give a sense of alliance, intimacy that is important in adult relationships
    • Childhood: parent-child relationships
      • Shaver et al (1988): Romantic love in adulthood is related to childhood attachment, caregiving and sexuality systems
        • Caregiving aspect: Knowledge about caregiving is learned by modelling the behaviour of the primary attachment figure
        • Attachment aspect - Bowlby (1969): Later relationships are likely to be continuations of early attachments because the early attachment figure provides an internal working model of future relationships
          • Research support: A lack of attachment in childhood and neglect can lead to attachment  disorders  in childhood. People who were diagnosed with these disorders in childhood have been found to have poor quality adult relationships
            • Determinism: Suggestion that if you experience poor relationships in childhood you WILL have poor adult relationships.This is detrimental for these individuals and is often simply not the case, many go on to have happy relationships
        • Sexuality system: Views on sec are learned from early attachments. E.g. people who had avoidant attachments are more likely to hold the view that sex without love is pleasurable (taps into preference for distance)
      • alternatively the psychodynamic approach suggests that how we adapt to adult relationships depends on how we dealt with the oedipus/electra complex in childhood
        • If a boy can identify with his fathers maleness he will have successfully resolved the phallic conflicts, if not then in future relationships he may look for nurturing and an unconditionally loving woman (representing mothers characteristics from the unresolved complex)
        • Concepts are unscientific. Psycghosexual stages are difficult to observe and measure making it difficult to gather scientific evidence to support the claims


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