Effects of Human Activities & Sustainability

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  • Effects of Human Activity & Sustainability
    • Resistance in Rats
      • Warfarin poison has been over used to kill rats and many have developed a resistance to it
      • Resistance has occurred through mutation
        • Increased use of warfarin has increased the rate of mutation within rats
      • R = resistant to warfarin and has vitamin K
        • Homozygous recessive rat  = rr
          • Not resistant to warfarin but has vitamin K so will be killed by warfarin
        • Heterozygous rat = Rr
          • Resistant to warfarin but require more vitamin K so will likely die to a shortage of vitamin K
        • Homozygous dominant rat = RR
          • Resistant to warfarin and requires even more vitamin K so is most likely to die of vitamin K shortage / deficiency
      • r = not resistant to warfarin and has vitamin K
    • Antibiotic Resistance
      • Has been caused by the over use/ over prescription in farming
        • Resulted in an increased rate of mutation
      • Bacteria have developed an advantageous allele that makes them resistant to antibiotics
      • E.G. MRSA
    • Artificial Selection
      • E.G. Dog breeding
      • Carried out by humans to obtain plants or animals with desired characteristics
      • Takes many years to develop organisms with desired characteristics
      • Organisms of the same species are produced but they are described s different breeds
      • Inbreeding occurs when the gametes that fuse are from close relatives
        • Causes health problems
      • Outbreeding occurs when unrelated varieties are crossed together


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