Educational attainment and class

  • Created by: chlopayne
  • Created on: 17-04-19 15:02
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  • Educational attainment and social class
    • Material deprivation
      • Lack of money to buy resources, which can help with education.
      • Sociologists
        • Smith & Noble (1995) found poorer parents couldn't afford additional resources.
          • Families able to afford resources can lead to children being isolated and bullied.
        • Leon Feinstein (2003) linked poor nutrition and educational underachievement.
        • Real (2005) found working class children applied for the closet Universities rather than educational quality.
      • Poor quality housing means children take more absences.
      • Marketisation of schools mean disadvantaged children are in a unpopular schools.
      • Older working class children work part time to support their studies.
      • Once at University, students from poorer backgrounds suffer material disadvantages that affect their capacity to study.
      • EMA was introduced to stop older children working to support their studies and support parents by removing the pressure of paying for education.
    • Cultural deprivation
      • Based on the assumption that working class are not as good as the middle class.
      • Sociologists
        • Bernstein - restricted language code. Non-standard grammar, simplistic sentences + informal English.
        • Douglas (1960) said working class parents don't value education.
        • Blackstone + Mortimore argue that research hasn't measured parental interest in education properly.
    • Cultural capital
      • Pierre Bordiou 1970 claims middle class people possess knowledge and use it to benefit their children.
      • Schools are middle class institutions run by middle class.
      • Working class and ethnic minority children may lack these qualities and have less chances to succeed in education.
      • Sociologists
        • Ball (1994) showed middle class parents are able to use their cultural capital to play the system, children accepted into schools of their choice.
        • West and Hind (2003) found interviews were used to exclude certain types of families.
    • Labelling theories
      • Government has taken on the concept, maybe easier to blame teachers for low expectations than to address issues in wider society.
      • Criticised by Mirza and others claim that children can and do reject negative labels.
      • Sociologists
        • Goodacre (1986) found working class children were under marked by teachers.
        • Ball (1981) - schools stream children based on behaviour rather than ability.
    • Britain is a class-based society. It is a myth that everyone has equal chance in society.
    • Parents and attitudes to school: most parents want their children to do well in school.
      • Parents recognise there is a link between a good education and good chances in life for children.
        • Generally, people with higher levels of education have better health, live longer, occupy better quality housing and have more opportunities
    • Subcultures and peer groups
      • Interactionists have worked with groups of children and found that children who find it difficult to succeed, reject the norms of the school.
      • Jackson (2002) suggested laddish behaviour is a form of self worth protection, as a response to testing and emphasis of educational success.
    • The curriculum and school organisation
      • Sociologists have argued that what is actually taught in the curriculum disadvantages the working class.
        • The knowledge they encounter at school doesn't connect with their own cultural experience.
      • Schools in poor areas have less funding than schools in rich areas.
      • Teachers have low expectations of poor pupils.
      • Working class experience is invisible in the school curriculum.
      • Cultural bias of hidden curriculum favours middle class.
      • Government policies have emphasis the importance of differentiating between pupils to provide a personalised educational experience.


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