Ecologism - Tenets

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  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 08-05-13 09:04
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  • Ecologism - Tenets
    • Ecology
      • The eco-system is independent
      • Focus on 'humans upsetting the balance of nature'.
        • Vast population growth
        • Pollution
        • Species extinction
        • Extensive use of Fossil Fuels
      • Reject Anthropocentrism, but differ in extent -- NAESS
        • 'Shallow' Ecologism
          • Also Environmentalism
          • Human-focused: dealing with fossil fuels/global warming so can preserve eco-system for humans in future
        • 'Deep' Ecologism
          • Focus on animals and encourage biocentric equality
          • Decentralise people from sole focus
    • Holism
      • The hole is more important than its parts
      • Opposed by SYNEDOCHE where whole is fragmented
      • Problem is scientists; Newton etc portray nature as a machine which can be broken, controlled, replaced and repaired by humans via science
        • Capra said can only overthrow problem of 'Catesian-Newtonian paradigm  by overthrowing the 'Newtonian world-machine'.
        • Holism would encourage the study of relationships and inter- connecting features: the whole. (Note SMUTS coined Holism term
        • Modern science has brought hope to Capra and other ecologists.
          • Einstein's Theory of Relativity and quantum physics recognise that objective knowledge cannot be obtained because the observer interacts with teh observed and changes the result; considers the WHOLE, including the context.
      • Eastern religions with their mysticism: oneness of all things and compassion for natural world (taoism)
      • Paganism: mother earth (all things alive) and Lovelock's 'Gaia hypothesis' - earth is best understood as a living entity that acts to maintain its own existence
        • Though Lovelock contradicts by supporting nuclear power in providing sollution to nvironmental crisis
        • Those who harm Gai will harm themselves - must protect earth
      • Christianity and Jeudaism etc have humans less superior to God
      • DICHOTOMy shallow look to benefit human species but deeps never sacrifice Earth to protect human
    • Sustainability
      • Criticise 'grey parties' because they assume world is constant;resources won't run out'
      • Boulding's 'spaceship earth' and 'cowboy economy' attitude
        • 'Spaceship Earth' treats Earth as enclosed spaceship with open/closed system (resources)
        • 'Cowboy Economy ' is 'reckless, exploitative and violent behaviour' of human assumption
          • Schumacher stresses energy crisis as eg of 'entropy' (decay) from closed systems: Earth bringing demise because expending finite resources and treating energy as exhaustible income
      • Solutions includes setting clear limits on human ambitions to stop damage to ecosystem - wind/solar/wave energy, which is 'income' rather than ' natural capital' (won't run out)
      • Schumacher's 'Buddhist Economics' is solution to make people reject personality 'utlity maximisers' and instead embrace 'right livelihood'.
        • Overcome 'ego-centredness' and focuses us on social bonds and benefits over material wealth obsession
      • Dichotomy between shallow/deep - latter (Fundis in Germany) have no tolerance of growth and construction whereas lights (Realos)  look to sustainable growth - middle-ground
    • Environmental Ethics
      • Ethical concerns  on need to think of future  where we won't be, and how far consider human being needs?
      • Most say must adopt 'fuiturity' principle, where consider future generations
        • Conservative ecologists: 'selling the family silver' and continuing tradition
        • Ecosocialists compassion and support for others is fundamental regardless of time, gender etc.
      • SInger: altruism-based thoughts. Criticise speciesism
        • Criticisms of his theory as does not extend to non-sentient beings, like rocks, plants etc.
      • Nature has an 'intrinsic' value, so it is a being within its own right - criticise Singer because his views are still human-based (sentience is human)
        • Goodin's 'green theory of value' - resources valued b/c from nature not ppl
          • Criticised by deeper ecols - should be valued b/c is larger than humans
      • 'Biocentric equality' - organisms and entities are of equal moral worth
        • supported by Naess with 'equal right to live and bloom' - benefits health and stability of ecological community
    • Self-Actualisation
      • personal fulfillment brought about by appreciating notions beyond material gain and egoism
      • reject human self-interest to = balance with nature
      • Maslow's 'hierarchy of needs' - can only focus on world peace, harmony etc if materially happy and prosperous
      • We are too knowledge-obsessed and so reject 'being' in favour of 'having' (Fromm)
      • DICHOTOMY:shallows are nervous that extreme shift = religious mysticism; they have realism.
        • Deeps believe in necessity of entirely different world view - acknowledge spiritual nature of views but say being close to nature is also a 'human experience where ppl develop towards "environmental consciousness"and the "ecological self"'


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