ecological explanations

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  • ecological explanations
    • key focus
      • closer to city centre = anomie - no-one knows you
      • soc cont in city = lim
      • > comm & resp => fall in crime
      • Tonnies
        • "the lonely crowd"
          • less face-to-face familiarity
    • Shaw & McKay
      • EVAL
        • crime rates vary in area
        • couldn't reproduce concentric circles
        • ignores m/c crime
        • ignores gentrification in 80's
        • ignores labelling process
      • Chicago sociology
    • Routine activities
      • Cohen & Felson
        • crime occurs in fam areas, low risk areas - these risks & targets = linked to activities & lives of victim
        • crime > likely happ when victim & offenders day coincides
          • no capable guardian e.g. pol officer; time & place - > likely to happ in evening down a quiet street
      • EVAL
        • maybe done in not-known areas - no-one knows them
        • happ in daylight as well
        • ignores w.c.c.
    • Oppertunity theory
      • Clarke
        • 2 elements - how attractive target is (how much gains) & how accurate target is (how easy)
      • EVAL
        • may be slpit second decision - e.g. stealing handbag
    • housing policy
      • concentration of del in certain areas linked to local council policies (LCP)
        • e.g. LCP of housing problem fams together - those areas = high crime areas
      • Baldwin & Boltoms
        • compared 2 sim local auth housing estates sep by dual carrigeway
          • Gardenia - 350% > crime than Stonewall; 300% > offenders
          • difference was result of 'tipping'
            • anti-social min grow & beh drives law-obiders away
      • EVAL
        • Morns found no diff bet people's v's in high del areas & m/c
    • differential association
      • Sutherland & Cressey
        • likely to become crim is receive excess def fav to violation of law
          • > likely to do themselves if react w/ law breakers
        • defs vary in... FDPI
      • EVAL
        • how do you measure these defs?
        • either become crim or not - too simplistic
        • then wives of crims = crim - not always the case

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