Effects of Earthquakes

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  • Earthquakes
    • Distribution
      • Earthquakes usually happen around plate boundaries
        • the most destructive occur at destructive faults especially if there is a subduction zone
          • also at transform faults such as the San Andreas fault
      • Can also happen away from plate boundaries and are associated with the reactivation of old fault lines
        • e.g. 2002 Dudley Earthquake
      • Human activity
        • deep mine working
        • Fracking
        • Extreme building
    • Measuring Earthquake
      • Richter Scale
        • logarithmic scale
        • each point represents a ten-fold increase in the amount of energy involved
        • measured using a seismograph
        • scale of 1-10
      • Mercalli Scale
        • Measures intensity of the event
        • based upon the impacts
        • scale 1-12
      • the Richter scale and Mercalli scale DO NOT math up exactly and event 12 on the Mercalli Scale, is only a 8.5 on the Richter Scale
    • Effects of Earthquakes
      • Primary
        • Ground Shaking
      • Secondary
        • Landslides & avalanches
        • Soil liquefaction
          • high water content in the soil looses mechanical structure and behaves as liquid
        • Collapse of buildings/transport systems
        • Flooding
          • dam bursts, ground water, mains water
        • Fires
          • ruptured gas mains and fallen pylons
        • Disease & food shortages
        • Destruction of water,gas & electricity provisions
        • Tsunamis
          • Untitled


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