Drainage Basin

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  • Created by: Natasha
  • Created on: 19-01-13 16:26
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  • Drainage Basins
    • an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries
    • source - the start of a river, usually found in high land
    • watershed - the boundary of a drainage basin, follows a ridge of high ground
    • confluence - where two rivers meet for example the river lagan and the ravernet river
    • mouth - the end point of a river, when a river enters a lake ocean or sea
    • tributary a small river that runs into a bigger one, for example the ravernet river is a tributary of the river lagan
    • inputs -  water that enters the system through precipitation
      • rain, snow, sleet or hail
    • outputs - where water is lost to the system
      • rivers carry it to the sea
      • evapo-transpiration - loss of moisture
        • evaporation -directly from rivers or lakes
        • transpiration - directly from plants
    • stores - places where the water is held
      • lake,pond, puddle, plants
      • interception - when water is caught temporarily by leaves, trees and plants, usually in the canopy
      • surface storage - when water forms pools, puddles or lakes and is temporarily held
      • soil moisture storage - when water is temporarily stored in the soil below ground
      • ground water storage - when water is temporarily stored at a depth in rocks
    • transfers - processes by which water flows, or moves, through the system
      • infiltration -  the downward movement of water through tiny pores in the soil from the surface into the ground
      • stemflow - water falling from the canopy to the ground
      • percolation - downwards movement of water
      • run off -  movement over surface occurs when rain etc. is too heavy for water to infiltrate into the soil, when the ground is impermeable or when soil is saturated
      • throughflow - sideways movement of water through saturated soil
      • groundwater flow - sideways movement of water in deeper soil/rocks, through saturated soil
      • river channel flow - water in the river travelling towards the sea


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